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Full text of "PROFILES - Volume 3 Number 6 (1986-01)(Kaypro Corp)(US)"

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sill! Ill 

... . .■-■ :.^v 

'-:.■ '■■■'-. :■:■ 

The^qdazine for Kaypro Users 
January 1986 

Turbo tutorial 
MS-DOS and CP/M 

^ \ 



• Use your modem to make phone calls auto- 
matically without exiting the program you are 
already working on!!! 


• Write a note, paragraph, letter, a whole file 
anytime, from within any other program!! 

■ Edit another file without leaving your 
current file!!! 


• Punch up a four function calculator anytime 
whenever your computer is on!!! Works in 
decimal, binary, hex!!! Works from within a 
spread sheet, or any other program!!! 


• Check your calendar, schedule appointments 
anytime your Kaypro is on!!! 

• Monthly calendars 1752-2099 AD!! 


• Checkthe directory of any disk, any user number, 
from within any program!!! 

• Display the contents of another file on your 
screen at any time!!! 


• Printthe screen. . .any screen (minus graphics), 
at any time!!! 

• Dump to your printer, or to a disk file!!! 

"Disk Full" message? 
With HANDYMAN you can check the disk 
directory and erase superfluous files from 
within any program!!! 

Turn your Kaypro on!!! HANDYMAN is there!!! 

HANDYMAN is a plug-in board for your Kaypro!!! 
HANDYMAN Works with all Kaypro CP/M models!!! 
HANDYMAN Easy to install!!! 
HANDYMAN We'll talk you through it over the phone!!! 

HANDYMAN Includes software in ROM and its' own working RAM!!! 
HANDYMAN You never have to load it! 

HANDYMAN Single stroke commands!!! 

HANDYMAN is compatible with all CP/M application programs!!! 

handyman Uses no main memory!!! 


Tech Research 

YES! Send me 

3010 FLOYD STREET • BURBANK, CALIFORNIA 91504 • (213) 849-7713 

HANDYMAN(s) at $124.95 each. y KAYPHU IS Q Wordstar □ Perfect Writer NOTEPAD command set 

(quantity) at $124.95 

California residents add 6.5% 
Shipping and handling 

Sales tax 


My KAYPRO is: 
II DD 2-84 
2X □ □ 4 

4-84 D D 10 
Robie □ □ 10-84 
4XDD 12X 

Charge my 
Card # 



C.O.D. and checks drawn on US banks also accepted. 

Trademarks Kaypro (Kaypro Corporation) Wordstar (MicroPro International Corporation) Perfect Writer (Perfect Software, Inc.) 


Complete accounting $ ^^^k ^^^95 
software package, only %k ^^^B~ 

C 127 

; ' %i ^ SB6 "^* W 'ESS'" ^'Sf 

^S^ 3 ^ ess- & 


Price is nice - and so is a long list of features - but when you Basic Business is one of a family of accounting and business 

choose a software package to automate your accounting, don't software packages, and has sold previously for several hundred 

lose sight of the basics of good business record keeping. Basic dollars per module. It has been improved, updated and re- 
Business is an all-in-one accounting software package consisting packaged to sell at a market-busting $89.95 for all seven modules- 

of General Ledger, Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable, A Point-of-Purchase module, which controls an electronic cash 

Payroll, Inventory Control, Sales Order Processing and Purchase drawer and allows direct entry of transactions from your sales 

Order Processing. It offers an excellent price and extensive counter is available. Also a dBase file format program is availble for 
feature list without sacrificing these basic business principles: importing Basic Business data files into dBase ll/lll for custom 

Full Audit Trails - to give you complete confidence in the report generation or other special uses, 
accuracy of your data and provide crucial backup information when 
you need it. And double entry accounting keeps your books in SOURCE CODE AVAILABLE 

balance - Do you have a distinct accounting problem that off-the-shelf 

Complete Integration - provides efficient processing for all software won't handle? Special forms or statements? Don't 

your business transactions, updating all of your accounting write your own accounting system from the ground up - start 

records instantaneously. You only enter the transaction once, and with Basic Business. Call (714) 630-0446 for all the details on 

all supporting modules are updated automatically. source code licensing. 

Flexibility - Basic Business can be adapted to your way of doinq Q ■ D 

business, including balance forward or open item accounts Basi f Busin , e ss can go to work for you today and is available for 

receivable, departmental or consolidated general ledger variable most p ? pular MS-DOS (IBM and compatibles) and CP/M-80 

aging periods and easy entry of manually written checks and P/TTxu comput f rs - Com P are our , Pnce, features and attention to 

voids. detail. There is only one choice . . . its Basic Business. 

Extensive Reporting - each accounting module provides „ a ? ic Business $89.95 

complete reports, including master lists, transactions, journals, Point-of-Purchase module $99.95 

statements and forms. In addition, all data files are compatible with dBase ll/lll file formats $19.95 

Ashton-Tate's dBase II and dBase III, for the ultimate in custom All items are warranteed for 90 days. 30 day money back guarantee if not completely 

reporting capability. satisfied and diskette package is not opened. MasterCard and VISA are welcome. 

u/;*k c~~„> -,~~,,.,*:~ ** i ■_ ' j _. Please add $2.50 for shipping. California residents please add 6% sales tax. Prices, 

With some accounting software, even packages costing hundreds availability and specifications subject to change without notice 

of dollars more, you must make detailed estimates and complex .„„, u A , a . ., „„,., 

calculations for the maximum number of customers, transactions, ^SS^fc , » » S d^iSb^S. TSfEnft MS ~ 

inventory items, etc., before using the system. Then, when your SUTffi-, •* &S7Z SSfdZ ^j£"J£S5& 

business grows to exceed these original estimates, you must 360K disk drives (hard disk for Sales and Purchase Order 

repeat this process. recommended for Sales and Purchase Processing), 132 column printer, MS- 

m„* ,.,i*h d,^i» n,,.i^.»i am a . <ii .• ii ■ -.- ■■ _. Order Processing), 132 column printer. DOS (or PC-DOS) version 2 

Not with Basic Business! All data files are automatically initialized y.™«wi«i. 

when you install the system on your computer. Files can grow !S^^ s rc-Dos B -lBM s ' AdvnuProdlIC ' 5,IOC ' ;CP/M " DRI; dBase n" 181 "* 111 - Ashton-Tue;Ms-Dos - 

dynamically as your business increases and are usually limited .. fflOAl fl^l 0770 

only by the amount of disk storage space available. No need for CALL TODAY Nat,onal l oww l °* ■ "° # # ° 

cumbersome reformatting once you exceed your original. California (8001 521-7182 

estimates. ' • f 

FORMS ARE NO PROBLEM! Basic Business uses standard tTT^ neZttZm^TJi S r 

forms for invoices, statements, checks, purchase orders, etc, W §W utMLEK inquiries welcome. 

^ h p?intTd ay be ordered with your company name ' adddress and io g° w 1 1 oduenb *™-m*™™** 

A I products inc. ^"V'So-o^e 


of Products from West Wind Computer is rlere. 

Now available for CP/M Systems including Osborne, Kaypro, Morrow, TcleVideo, Xerox and more 

The Revolutionary NEW Drive C 2! 

Up to 1 MegaByte of RAM-disk, Print Buffer and giant EXPANDED-MEMORY SuperSize SuperCalcZ 


Battery Backup for Drive C 

NEW! 8- and 16-bit Trantor Hard Disks! 

Use BOTH CP/M and IBM PC-DOS or MS-DOS on the SAME drive. 

NEW! Daisy-chain Trantor Hard Disks! 

Now, ADD more capacity as easy as plugging in a cable. 

NEW! 19 Meg Tape System! 

Quick, reliable low-cost Backup capability. 

5 Meg Removable Cartridge System! 

Removable Drive flexibility AND Backup capability. Ideal for multiple client businesses. 

TurboPac and TurboTrantor Hard Disk Systems! 

THE most powerful Hard Disk systems available today! Combine the power of Drive C and a Trantor 
Hard Disk separately or in a single TurboTrantor enclosure. Simultaneous RAM-disk, Print Buffer, Super- 
Size SuperCalc2 and the INCREDIBLE speed of Cache-Buffered Hard Disk. 

The Web MultiUser Network! 

Up to 4 users, 3 printers, electronic mail. Now with up to 1 MegaByte of hi-speed Cache for the most 
cost-effective, hi-performance CP/M Network ever. 

West Wind's integrated family of products is designed to grow with your needs. West Wind Products include 
all necessary hardware, easy-to-read complete documentation and powerful, user-friendly software. 

___ — — -- — — -^ To learn more about our NEXT GENERATION products and to get all the detail 

of our great DOUBLEUP Sale including complete CP/M and PC-DOS compatibl< 
systems, Call or Write NOW for our New FREE Fall Catalog. 

Yes! □ Send me the new, FREE WestWind Fall Catalog. 

My computer is a 

Yes! □ I want my very own CP/M LIVES! T-Shirt! 

Size S M L XL (Circle one) 


Address . 



Save! Get your CP/M LIVES! T-shirt FREE with any order over $100! OR, orde 
your T-Shirt now for only $9.95 and we'll give you FULL CREDIT on any futun 
purchase of $100 or more. 

Enclose $9.95 plus $2.00 Shipping and Handling for each 
T-shirt. CA residents add 6.5% Sales Tax. 

□ Check □ Visa □ MasterCard 

Card No. 
WestWind Computer PRFS1-86 1690 65th St., Emeryville, CA 94608 

For Information or To Order: 
US 800-526-6500 
CA 800-831-3144 



1690 65th Street, Emeryville, CA 94608, (415) 652-3222 
Telex: 756329 (DRIVE C UD), WU EASYLINK 62533500 

Exp. Date_ 


For Technical Support: 
CALL 415-652-3222 

Trademarks: WestWind Computer- BackPac, DriveC, Trantor, TurboPac, .urboTranror, 
Web/Digital Research -CP/M/Compurer Associates Sorcim/IUS-SuperCak2/OCC- 
Osborne/Kaypro Corp.-KayPro/Morrow-Morrow/TeieVideo-TeleVideo/Xerox Corp. 
-Xerox/Inrernational Business Machines Corp.- IBM, PC-DOS/MicroSofl - MS-DOS 


MS-DOS & CP/M 34 

Kaypro 2000 

On the cover: Where did MS-DOS come from? 
The Kaypro 2000, an MS-DOS lap-top computer, 
is being pulled out of a Kaypro II, an original 
CP/M workhorse, MS-DOS was literally derived 
from CP/M. 

Cover photograph by R. S. Powers 

Volume 3, Number 6 

January 1986 

The Magazine for Kaypro Users 



Editors' Notes 4 

Letters 6 

Q&A 9 

Product Spotlight 85 

New Products 86 

Technical Forum 90 

Advertisers' Index 96 


Pretty Pascal 28 

by Edward Gelerinter 

Tutorial illustrating Turbo's power and beauty 

MS-DOS and CP/M 34 

by Drew Finnie 

Delving into their similarities and their differences 

The Z-System 42 

by Ted Silveira 

Part 2: Installing it on Kaypros 

Kaypro 2000 50 

by Frederick Hannon 
A closer look at the lap-top 

PROFILES 1985 Subject Index. 



Life at 300 Baud ' 14 

by Brock Meeks 

Flea Market 21 

by Ted Silveira 

Beginner's Luck 80 

by Tyler Sperry 

Books in Brief 94 

by Dick Lutz 

January 3 


You'll notice some changes In 
this issue of PROFILES. The 
first is that there is a Janu- 
ary issue. In the past, we published 
10 times a year, including July/ 
August and December/January 
issues. From now on, we will pub- 
lish 12 times a year. 

Second, we are including a code 
at the beginning of each feature 
article indicating which machines 
it pertains to and whether it is for 
beginning, intermediate, advanced 
or general readers. An article desig- 
nated "Advanced/8," for example, 
would be for the experienced owner 
of an 8-bit machine (Kaypro 1, 2, 4 
or 10). An article designated "Gen- 
eral/16" would be for all readers 
with MS-DOS (16-bit) machines. 

Third, because PROFILES is 
"the magazine for Kaypro users," 
including owners of the 16, 16-2, 
286i, 2000 and Kaypro PC, we are 
expanding our MS-DOS coverage, 
but we intend to maintain the cov- 
erage CP/M owners demand and 

Fourth, two new items— "Tip 
Trader" and "Little Mysteries"— 
will be published as regularly as 
space allows. "Tip Trader" is tips 
readers have passed on to us in 
their letters. Heretofore they had 
gone begging for lack of a forum. 
"Little Mysteries," as its author 
David Weinberger states, will fur- 
nish those "pleasant jolts of under- 
standing" that make computer use 
easier and more satisfying. 

Finally, you may notice that the 
magazine has a somewhat different 
look. Columns and departments 
will stay the same to make them 
easily identifiable, but our talented 
art department will be "individ- 
ualizing" features to make them 
more inviting and enjoyable to 

We hope you like what you see. 

Terian Tyre 
Diane Ingalls 

Copyright © 1986. All rights reserved. 



Geoffrey W. Soule 


Diane Ingalls 
Terian Tyre 


Tom Enright 


Ted Silveira 

Dick Lutz 
Brock Meeks 


Doug Powell 


Lorraine Leung 


Gwyn Price 


Mary Boggy 


533 Stevens Avenue 

Solana Beach, CA 92075 



Nancy Donabedian 

249 S. Highway 101, Suite 321 

Solana Beach, CA 92075 


Volume 3, Number 6 

PROFILES (ISSN 8775-464X) is published 
ten times a year by Kaypro Corporation, 
533 Stevens Ave., Solana Beach, California 
92075. Registered owners of Kaypro com- 
puters, within the United States, are 
entitled to a six-issue introductory sub- 
scription. Subscriptions within the United 
States are available for $25.00 per year 
to people who are not registered Kaypro 
computer owners and for introductory 
subscription renewals. . 
Copyright © 1986 by Kaypro Corporation. 
All rights reserved. Reproduction without 
express written consent of the publisher is 
strictly prohibited. Second Class postage 
pending at Solana Beach, CA, and at addi- 
tional mailing offices. 



General subscription information 
can be found on page 40. If your 
subscription is due to expire, we'll 
notify you by mail. No subscription 
will be cancelled until you are given 
a chance to renew Our basic one 
year rate is $25 for 12 issues, 

If your first issue does not arrive 
within eight weeks after you've 
sent in your warranty card, or you 
miss an issue, please write to: PRO- 
FILES, Circulation Dept., P.O. Box 
2889, Del Mar, CA 92014. We'll 
extend your subscription or send 
the issue. 

To direct PROFILES to a new 
address, attach a recent mailing 
label plus both your old and new 
addresses. Allow six to eight weeks 
for processing 

If you have any other problem 
with your subscription or billing, 
please let us know at the above 
(Circulation) address so we can 
solve it promptly. 


Reviews, editorial references, and 
advertisements should not be 
taken as endorsements of any prod- 
ucts not specifically manufactured 
by Kaypro Corporation. Opinions 
expressed are those of individuals 
and do not represent any form of 
corporate certification. Nor do they 
reflect intensive technical analysis 
as would be provided by a profes- 
sional testing firm. 

Responsibility for advertised 
products lies with the advertisers. 
Though we will not knowingly pub- 
lish fraudulent materials, we are 
not liable for any damages arising 
from the purchase or use of any 
products. Should there be any con- 
sumer complaints regarding goods 
or services purchased from our 
advertisers, we would appreciate 
written notification to that effect to 
aid our own screening. □ 

4 Profiles 

Professional software for your Kaypro 
at low, low prices. 

Proportional Spacing. For WordStar 3.3 Only $22.95 

A program that automatically installs your WordStar to print in proportional 
spacing and right justified margin. This means such letters as "i" and "1" will 
occupy much less space than letters like "m" and "w," and the space between 
words will be evenly spread out. As a result, every document you print, every 
letter you send out from your office will be dramatically improved in printout 
appearance and look almost typeset! Moreover, you can continue to print in right 
justification, boldface, shadow print, underscore, superscript, subscript, and 
a combination of these features while in proportional spacing mode. Best results 
are achieved when you use a PS printwheel, but fine even if you use the ordi- 
nary non-PS 10, 12, or 15-pitch printwheels. No crowded characters, even on 
one-word short lines. Comes with a disk and a manual plus a variety of print- 
ing tricks. Requires Kaypro, Juki, Brother, Star Power Type or any other letter- 
quality printers. Simply the best of its kind on the market at any price! 

Extra Bonus for Juki 6100 printer: Our Proportional Spacing program will 
also automatically install your Juki 6100 to print French cedilla (c) and German 
umlaut (u), two foreign characters not on your keyboard. Now your Juki 6100 
can print all the diacritical marks needed for French and German. Detailed in- 

Mailing List. Only $15.95 

Just load it and start data entry! extremely easy to use. Then print 1, 2, 3, or 
4-across standard Avery labels. Specially set up for you DataStar and Mail- 
Merge, so you will get all the sophisticated features of DataStar and MailMerge. 
Add, delete, sort, and update your list anytime, Can sort any field. Number of 
records limited only by your disk capacity. Many tricks and tips included in our 
clearly written manual. Originally developed for a magazine subscription agency 
to keep track of more than 100,000 subscribers. Why waste time creating your 
own when you can use our fully tested and debugged program? Requires at least 
DataStar and MailMerge to run. 
For all Kaypro models and IBM compatible. 

structions on how to print the other four special characters ( c § — . £) on Juki 
printwheels are included in our manual. 

Now, with more features added: 

1. Allows you to install up to four different kinds of printwheels, including the 
new Juki Standard PS and the 15-pitch Mini Majestic (sold below). 

2. Can print your NEW WORD files in proportional spacing and right justi- 
fied margin. 

3. Detailed instructions on how to customize our program, if necessary, to 
produce a printout that suits your own personal taste. 

4. More printing tricks explained in plain English (not computerese) by our in- 
house printer specialist for you to take full advantages of your letter-quality 

Note: The Kaypro Letter-quality printer that comes with your Kaypro 2X is the 
same as the Juki 6100 in every aspect except color. 

For Kaypro II, 2, 2X, 4, 10, 16, 286i, and all IBM compatibles. 

Bibliography. Only $15.95 

An electronic marvel for modern scholars and writers! Just call it up and start 
building your own electronic bibliography database. Then print in MLA, Chica- 
go, Trabian, or any other styles. Specially set up for your DataStar and Mail- 
Merge, so you can add, delete, sort, and update your bibliographic items 
anytime. Can sort any field. Number of records limited only by your disk ca- 
pacity. Many tricks and tips discussed in our Manual. Used by the author in 
his Ph.D. dissertation on medieval Chinese military institutions. Saves you hours 
of frustration in creating your own. Requires at least DataStar and MailMerge 
to run. 
For all Kaypro models and IBM compatibles. 

Roman PS 

Standard PS 

Courier 10 

Prestige Elite 12 

Mini Majestic 12/15 

Letter Gothic 10/12 

Genuine Juki 6100 printwheels (100 characters). Only $22.95 each. 

The Quick Brown Fox Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog. [\]" % [|] 

The Quick Brown Fox Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog. [Q]A°|H 

The Quick Brown Fox Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog 

The Quick Brown Fox Jumps Right Over The Lazy D og. [\]~ v {|)~ 
The Quick Brown Fox Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog. [G]A°Hi 2 

The Quick Brown Fox 'Jumps R ight Over The Lazy Dog. [Q]A°Jlfi 2 

Note. Only Courier 10, Prestige Elite 12, and Roman PS are in the Juki Sequence and only these three can produce diacritical marks for French and German 
I he rest are in the Special Sequence and capable of printing other substitute characters as shown above. We now carry a full line of 18 genuine Juki-brand printwheels 
You can order any Juki printwheel not listed here. Printwheel catalog will be sent free with any order. iwneas. 

Public Domain Disk. Only $9.95 

Our software engineer has fully tested and assembled a disk foil (19IK) of the finest CP/M pro- 
grams now in the public domain. Saves you time and money to collect these on your own In- 
cludes KSTROKES (a SmartKey-like program), SCREEN DUMP, NEW SWEEP KMODEM 
PLAY, FIND, and QUICKEY. With documentation. Absolutely a must. 
For Kaypro CP/M models only. 

Tractor Feed for Juki 6100. Only $139.00 

Can t keep your continuous form paper properly aligned on your Juki 6100 or Kaypro Letter 
Quality printer? No matter. All you need is a tractor unit. Installed in minutes. Easily removed 
when not needed. Works like a charm in printing mailing lists and long manuscripts. Comes 
with easy-to-understand installation instructions. FREE UPS shipping. No sales tax when 
shipped out of New Jersey. 


1004 Quail Ridge Drive 
P. O. BOX 732 
Plainsboro, NJ 08536 
Telephone (609) 275-0789 


P.O. Box 732, Plainsboro, NJ 08536 

Dear Chaucer, please rush me the following in 24 hours: 


U Proportional Spacing 

□ Mailing List 
G Bibliography 

□ Printwheel 


□ Public Domain Disk 

□ Juki 6100 tractor 


NJ residents only, add 6% sales tax 

First Class Postage 

Foreign orders add $10 for Air Mail 



□ Check Enclosed 

Card tt 

Exp. Date 





□ MasterCard 

. Signature 

. State . 

Kaypro Model 

Zip . 

. Printer _ 



$ 64 95 

Dae Easy Accounting is remarkable, 
amazing, revolutionary, sensational..." 
Computer Buyer's Guide 
& Handbook, September 1985 

General Information 

• Menu driven 

• Password protection 

• File capacity limited only by disk space 

• Support contract available 
General Ledger 

• Unlimited multi-level accounts 

• Three-year account history for CRT inquiry 

• Pencil and pen feature to correct mistakes 

• Unique budgeting routine 

• CRT transaction inquiry 

• Activity report, trial balance, financial statements, 
unlimited departments and journals 

Accounts Receivable 

• Open invoice or balance forward 

• Customized aging report 

• Unlimited number of customers 

• Flexible mailing labels and directories 

• Supports partial payments & finance charges 

• Three-year customer history for number of invoices, sales, 
costs, and profits 

• Customized statements 

• Cash flow analysis/sales analysis 

• Automatic sales forecasting 
Accounts Payable 

• Check printing with multiple invoices and cash available 

• Aging reports with seven customized columns 

• Unlimited number of vendors 

• Flexible mailing labels and directories 

• Three-year vendor history 

• Unlimited allocations per invoice 

• Supports average, last purchase, and standard costing 

• Powerful physical inventory routines 

• Accepts any unit of measure 

• Three-year product history in units, dollars, cost, and 

• Automatic forecast of product sales 

• Automatic pricing assignments 

• Alert and activity reports with 11 sorts 

• CRT shows on-hand/on-order/committed/sales/cost/ 

Purchase Order 

• Inventory and non-inventory items 

• Allows up to 99 lines per P.O. 

• Per line discount in % 

• P.O. accepts generic discounts/freight/taxes/insurance 

• P.O. accepts back orders and returns 

• Purchase journal 

• Service or inventory invoicing on plain or preprinted 
forms with remarks 

• Prints sales journal 

• Allows return credit memo 

Unique program that automatically forecasts using your 
three-year history: 

• Revenue and expense accounts 

• Vendor purchases 

• Customer sales, cost, and profit 

• Inventory item usage 

• Forecast by same as last year, or % base from last year, or 
trend, or least square trend line analysis method 

Minimum Hardware Requirements: 

IBM PC, XT, AT, KAYPRO 16, 286i-B, C, or 

other compatible, 132 column printer in compressed 

mode, MS-DOS, PC-DOS. 

Send in this coupon with your credit card number, 
money order or check for $64.95 plus $2.50 for 
postage and handling. 

Account No. 


Company Name 


City State . 



Signature . 

High Technology, Inc. 

9312 W. 92nd Ave. 

Westminster, CO 80020 

(303) 431-7596 

Taking exception 

I sincerely appreciate your includ- 
ing Cubbyhole in your review of 
small bookkeeping packages 
("Automating Your Books," Nov- 
ember 1985). However, there were 
two incorrect statements made 
concerning Cubbyhole which I 
would like to correct. 

First, the "Checkbooks" are not 
an "added layer of account defini- 
tion," but refer simply to a checking 
or other bank account, which you 
can define 26 of on one data disk. 
There is an unlimited number of 
accounts possible in each Check- 
book, not 26 as the review stated. 
Perhaps the reviewers were refer- 
ring to our Fund capability, which 
lets the user flag each transaction 
with one of 26 Fund codes (A-Z), so 
it is possible to keep track of per- 
sonal and business expenses sepa- 
rately within one checkbook. 

Second, I am not sure what was 
meant by "multi-level menu struc- 
ture." Cubbyhole has one opening 
menu, and that's all. The AR and AP 
modules, being designed to func- 
tion also as stand-alone programs, 
also each have one opening menu, 
showing all of their options. I would 
also like to add that we have added 
an open-item statement printing 
option to AR since the reviewed 
version, and that updates are avail- 
able for all modules by sending the 
original disks back to us and $5 per 

Thank you again for the review 
and for letting me correct these 

Alden Swan 

TSK Inc. 

Minot, North Dakota 

I have never felt compelled to write 
a letter to an editor prior to this. 
However, the review of our account- 
ing software (SBAcount) was so 
inaccurate that I feel it was either 
written by someone who had not 
even attempted to use the software 
or that part of the article was 
severely and very poorly edited. 

From what is in the article, I have 
the feeling that the review was orig- 
inally on two of our accounting pro- 
grams (MBAcount and SBAcount), 
as both are mentioned therein, and 
that the article was edited way 
down in size. 

Your readers certainly deserve 
articles that profess to be software 
reviews that are thorough and 
accurate because they, as I do, will 
base many purchase decisions on 
magazine reviews. 

Micro-Art Programmers actu- 
ally has three accounting pro- 
grams: SBAcount, which is a very 
easy-to-use single-entry system 
with the capability of handling up 
to 99 income and 99 expense 
accounts; MBAcount, a double- 
entry system with a full general 
ledger (80 expense, 40 income, 40 
asset, 40 liability and 20 capital 
accounts); and $FINANCE, a per- 
sonal accounting program that will 
also track charge accounts. 

The article states that SBAcount 
can only handle 20 income and 40 
expense accounts, when in fact it 
can handle up to 99 each. The older 
version of MBAcount could only 
handle 20 income and 40 expense 
accounts, but was updated quite 
some time ago to the figures stated 
above. All three of these accounting 
programs can handle up to nine 
different checking or other type of 
bank accounts, and all have report 
capabilities for year to date or for 
any month. 

The review adds additional 
confusion, such as mentioning 
that modules are available for 
SBAcount, etc. These modules are 
available for MBAcount, or as com- 
pletely stand-alone programs. 
They cannot integrate with 

The last paragraph completely 
eludes comprehension unless it 
originally referred to MBAcount, as 
SBAcount is so easy to use and data 
entry so rapid that hiring a book- 
keeper would be a complete waste. 
The main purpose of all our ac- 
(continued on page 8) 

Copyright © 1986. AN rights reserved. 

6 Profiles 


How Borland's Three New Holiday 

Packs Will Fill Your Stocking Without 

Emptying Your Piggybank. 

Three special packs with dazzling discounts that will help get 
you into a Holiday mood. You can get some of Turbo, most of 
Turbo, or all of Turbo — including the two newest 
members of the Turbo family, Turbo GameWorks™ and 
Turbo Editor Toolbox™ You also get our unmatched 60 
day money-back guarantee, quality products 
that aren't copy-protected. 

You get the two exciting new members of the 
Turbo Pascal family, 

• TURBO GAMEWORKS, Chess, Bridge, and Go- 
Moku, complete with source code and a 200- 
page manual. 

• TURBO EDITOR TOOLBOX, all the building 
blocks to make your own editors and word 
processors, complete with source code and a 
200-page manual. 

You get all three of the Turbo family classics 
for only $125.00 (about a 30% discount). Turbo 
Pascal 3 and Turbo Tutor and Turbo Data- 
Base Toolbox— all for just $12500. 

• TURBO PASCAL combines the fastest Pascal 
compiler with an integrated develop- 
ment environment 

• TURBO TUTOR teaches you step-by-step 

,..,.,....... . 

Source • " :: . "<< ;.,.-•..•; , «e. 

• TURBO DATABASE TOOLBOX offers three problem- 
solving modules for your Turbo Pascal programs. Turbo 
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Kaypro makes a 
too bad it doesrf 

nice computer- 
t do graphics" 

Make that didn't do graphics. SCS-Draw ■ SCS-Draw gives you a variety of useful 

is here, bringing Macintosh-style graphics ■ drawing tools to choose from. You can 

to the Kaypro computer. /^IPv 3 draw a detailed ima S e dot - b y- dot » ° r do 

With SCS-Draw, you can use, jfc I a rough sketch with straight lines. Need 

your Kavpro to draw a f. : :,:«■■ i a compass? SCS-Draw can draw circles of 

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The first true drawing program for the 

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There are many applications of SCS-Draw. 

For example, you could design and B 

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you can make your 


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Kaypro is a registered trademark of Kaypro Corporation. Macintosh is a trademark licensed to Apple Computer. 




^Record all transactions 
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(continued from, page 6) 

counting software is for quick and 
easy use by small businesses. 

I hope this letter reaches the 
proper ears at PROFILES and that 
more care is given to future review 

Arthur L. Purcilly 
Micro- Art Programmers 
Cayucos, California 

Reviewer Casey Cook replies: 

Regarding Mr. Swan's com- 
ments, I have to apologize for the 
confusion in terminology. The dif- 
ficulty was that in moving from 
one menu selection to another, we 
found ourselves frequently 
retracing steps, which the menu 
structure forces you to do. 

In response to Mr. Purcilly, we, 
too, are concerned with the prob- 
lem of brevity. Originally we had 
hoped to include more packages 
and a chart of 41 criteriafor each 
package. Wefound, however, that 
we were comparing not apples to 
apples, but fruit to vegetables. 
Due to these inconsistencies, the 
chart was omitted. 

Regarding the income and 
expense account questions, we 
used the information Micro-Art 
provided us as the basis of the 
review, and your SBAcount users' 
guide, dated January 1982, notes 
on page 6 under the question, 
"How many income accounts do 
you want?" that "You may install 
from one to 20 income accounts. " 
On page 7 it notes "... you may 
install 40 expense accounts." It 
appears the information provided 
us is now out of date; your letter 
corrects the misinformation. 

Can't please all people . . . 

Lisa Fontes' letter in the November 
issue sent me back to September to 
find the number that got her goat. 
The merchandise she was talking 
about seems so harmless— which 
shows you never know when a gun 
is loaded, do you? 

If your "General Store" tried to 
(continued on page 12) 

8 Profiles 

We welcome and read all your 
letters. Letters of general interest 
are printed in the Letters column. 
Pleas for technical help are dealt 
with here, if they lend themselves 
to short answers, or in Technical 
Forum if the question is more 

Due to the volume, we simply 
can't respond to all requests for 
assistance. Problems requiring 
an immediate reply should be 
taken to your dealer. Kaypro 
Technical Support can be con- 
tacted, but be aware that they 
give dealers' calls priority. They 
are at (619) 481-3920, or write to 
them at P.O. Box N, Del Mar, CA, 
92014. Please include a daytime 
phone number. 

Warped characters 

I'm having a problem that I hope 
you can help me with. It concerns 
my dot-matrix printer, an SCM 
D-100, and WordStar. 

Some lower case letters with de- 
scenders (portions of a letter that 
print below the line) often print dis- 
torted. They always do this when 
one of them is the first letter on a 

The same thing occurs when the 
letters are underlined. I can't tell if 
the problem is in the software or in 
my printer. I have enclosed a print 
sample that illustrates the dis- 
torted letters. I would appreciate 
any light you could shed on this. 

Peter Reichelt 
Flushing, New York 

Your print sample does show dis- 
torted descenders. All portions of 
the letters except the descenders 
are printed correctly. Descenders 
in your print sample all slant to 
the right. I cannot imagine Word- 
Star having this effecton printers, 
so I think the problem is in your 

If you bought the printer 
recently, take it back to the 
dealer. He will need to either 
clean or replace the printhead. If 

Copyright © 1986 Tom Enright. All rights reserved. 

you've had the printer for some 
time and it's just now beginning 
to show this problem, you'llprob- 
ably have to pay to have the same 
thing done. 

For a do-it-yourself approach, 
you might try a printhead clean- 
ing kit. However, I've never used 
one myself so I can't vouch for 
them personally. 

Full directory 

I have a Kaypro 2X with double- 
sided, double-density drives. I 
mostly use the machine for word 
processing, and tend to create lots 
of small files. My problem is that I 
am allowed only 64 filenames on a 
diskette, so I usually run out of 
directory space before filling up all 
storage space on the diskette. 

In the CP/M manual, a macro 
library called DISKDEF is dis- 
cussed. This library is supposed to 
allow one to redefine the number of 
directory entries on a disk. The 
manual mentions that the library 
is included on all CP/M distribution 
diskettes. However, that library 
wasn't on any diskette that came 
with my computer. 

When I asked my dealer about 
this he said that it was virtually 
impossible to change the number 
of directory entries. He also said 
that if I did manage to do so my 
machine wouldn't read any other 
Kaypro diskettes. 

Is the situation really that com- 
plicated? It seems reasonable to me 
that I should have twice the num- 
ber of filenames available than you 
can get on a single-sided disk. 

Greg Rose 
Denver, Colorado 

I wouldn't recommend attempt- 
ing to alter the number of direc- 
tory entries allowed on a diskette. 
The dealer was right when he 
said that if you did manage to do it 
you wouldn't be able to read nor- 
mal Kaypro diskettes. 

The DISKDEF library is a hold- 
over from the days when users 





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usually implemented CP/M on a 
system of their own design using 
8-inch disk drives. Since it speaks 
to system-level programmers, as 
does the documentationfrom Dig- 
ital Research, the file has been 
deletedfrom Kaypro diskettes. 

What Kaypro has done on dou- 
ble-sided diskettes is to allow two 
logical file extents to occupy one 
physical directory entry. This 
allows more efficient use of the 
directory space with large files — 
not with small ones. 

Have you been deleting the 
".BAK" files from your diskettes? 
Thatis the bestway to make more 
efficient use of the directory space 
that you have to work with. 

You may also consider using a 
library utility to consolidate files 
that you don 't use often. A library 
utility co nso lida tes a series offi les 
under one filename. You can then 
break a specific file out of the 
library only when you need it. A 
good library utility should be 
available from a local users' 
group or bulletin board system. 

Microwaves revisited 

I read your item in the September 
"Q & A" column entitled "Micro- 
wave computers" and felt I had to 

I am a physicist by education 
and a health physicist by profes- 
sion (a physicist who concerns 
himself with matters of radiation 
safety). My particular area of spe- 
cialty is X-rays, and as such I am 
the X-ray safety officer at a nation- 
al laboratory and have my own 
business consulting with local hos- 
pitals regarding the safety of their 
X-ray machines. 

In your article you quoted radia- 
tion levels for VDTs (video display 
terminals). The level of 0.0005 
roentgens per hour (R/hr) is the 
limit imposed by federal law and is 
hard to miss with the proper survey 

The level of 0.00012 R/hr you 
cited as typical for VDTs has to be 
at least a factor of ten [higher than 

10 Profiles 

levels actually emitted]. This is a 
level quite easily measured and is 
considerably higher than possible 
from a monochrome VDT. If these 
levels are actually being measured, 
then the instrumentation is faulty 
or inappropriate, or the personnel 
don't know how to operate it. Natu- 
ral background radiation in Solana 
Beach [location of Kaypro's plant] is 
about 0. 0000 1 R/hr. 

In my professional society's jour- 
nal, Health Physics (Vol. 46, No. 2, 
February 1984, pp. 413-417, Per- 
gammon Press Ltd.), is a definitive 
article on this subject. This article 
describes measurements made by 
persons who could not accept the 
statement that VDTs emit levels of 
radiation "not detectable above 
normal background levels." They 
measured VDT radiation levels 
with a "whole-body" counter de- 
signed to detect minute quantities 
of radioactive contamination in 
persons working with radioactive 

The bottom line is that 67 VDTs 
were measured (no Kaypros), some 
color but mostly monochrome. 
Radiation was measured from the 
VDT itself, but the measured levels 
didn't change whether the VDT was 
on or off! 

The level of radiation measured 
from VDTs was then compared to 
levels common around us: 
Cosmic radiation: 0.028 R/yr. 
Terrestrial radiation: 0.026 R/yr. 
Natural radiation inside the body: 
0.027 R/yr. 

Natural radiation dose at 50 cm 
from a normal adult, 2000 hr/yr: 
0.0003 R/yr. 

VDT, 2000 hr/yr: it's less than 
0.000006 R/yr. 

This kind of a detailed study 
should put this matter to rest, or at 
least in the proper perspective. 

Ted De Castro 

Castro Valley, California 

You're right. I did misplace the 
decimal point— my mistake. M J 


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January 11 


(continued from page 8) 

become a special interests melting 
pot, it would soon take over the 
publication. I know none of us who 
is serious about computers wants 
that. PROFILES is too valuable just 
as it is. The July- August article on 
customizing WordStar, for exam- 
ple, represents not only hours and 
days of pleasure for me, but a major 
breakthrough in a printing prob- 
lem I've had since the beginning. I 
wouldn't trade it for a solid gold 
bust of Carrie Chapman Catt. 

Don't apologize. Your friends 
don't need it. 

Clara T. Kingston 

St. Simons Island, Georgia 

Wonderful help 

I am a relatively new user of the 
Kaypro 10. 1 received the November 
issue and I must thank you and 
John A. Morris for his article "Book- 
keeping for Small Businesses." 

What a truly wonderful help for a 
rank beginner. I sat down immedi- 
ately and created the program 
exactly as he outlined it, and after 
playing with it for a short time was 
able to come up with exactly what I 
wanted for my own use. 

It was a revelation, and it has 
given me some insight into dBASE 
II that I'm sure would have taken 
me months to find elsewhere. It's 
just the kind of guidance we begin- 
ners are looking for. 

Betty Lockwood 

San Clemente, California 

Where to find Kid. Math 

Linda McPherson's article ("Kids 
and Computers," September 1985) 
refers to a program called 
"Kid.Math" by IFR Nowhere in the 
issue, I believe, is the address of IFP 
listed, and I cannot find it at any of 
the several local stores I have tried. 
Do you know the address of IFP? 

Marc Lee Raphael 
Columbus, Ohio 

The address we have for IFP Pub- 
lishing is 2727 Dalton Ave., Ann 

12 Profiles 

Arbor, Michigan 48104. 

We stand corrected 

You had less than beginner's luck 
with your November piece ("Begin- 
ner's Luck" column) in "insuring 
that a signal arrives at it's destina- 
tion when it's due to arrive and not 

What's the use of computerized 
spelling aids when a spelling can 
be right and wrong in the same 

When I trained proofreaders, I 
used to tell them, "This is not the 
kind of mistake you're expected to 
catch; it's the kind you're expected 
to expect." 

Leon Lukaszewski 
Walnut Creek, California 

We expect you're right. Of course 
the phrase should have read 
"insuring that a signal arrives at 
its destination when it's due and 
not before." The writer and the 
computer are innocent; we are to 
blame.— The editors. 

The benefits ofpop-ups 

I really enjoyed the article on pop- 
ups by Ted Silveira ("Flea Market," 
November 1985). I am a user of 
Sidekick on the IBM PC at work and 
wished for some similar program 
on my Kaypro 2-84 at home. I ran 
across the ad for Handyman three 
issues ago and ordered it. 

It has been installed for almost 
two weeks and I really like it. It was 
later that I saw ads for programs 
resident in RAM like Sidekick. I had 
questioned the advisability of 
using my limited RAM for such a 
program and that's why Handy- 
man appealed to me. 

There are differences between 
Sidekick and Handyman that 
become obvious at first use, but as 
far as I'm concerned, Handyman 
has given my CP/M computer a new 
lease on life in my household. It has 
made my computer much more 
enjoyable to work with. 

Larry S. Borges 
Stockton, California 

Programming— ugh! 

I am delighted with my Kaypro and 
I have found PROFILES very useful 
and helpful— but not the October 
1985 issue. 

Whenever I get a new issue, I 
can't wait to go through it, every 
page, to see what goodies it has for 
me. When I paged through the 
October issue, I was stunned until I 
read your editorial defending its 
content. I hope you will not con- 
tinue to believe we need to do our 
own programming. How can per- 
sonal computers become wide- 
spread if we do? How many people 
would be using cars today if they 
had to rebuild them to use them? 

Any normal person can easily 
replace the air filter in a car, but 
how many do? And that job is 
easier than any in the October 
issue's six feature articles. 

Do you get my point? Until we 
can get computers that are useful 
immediately and good service, 
preferably by the supplier, don't 
expect much growth in personal 

Do our own programming? Ugh! 

C.W Bendigo 

N. Ft. Myers, Florida 

Third World users 

As an American with profound per- 
sonal and professional interests in 
international development, I have 
found the cosmopolitan nature of 
PROFILES to be one of its most 
attractive features. Thus I hope 
you'll continue to run carefully 
selected articles on the uses of 
micros in Third World settings. 

While editorial balance is always 
a difficult task, I hope you won't let a 
few readers with regrettably paro- 
chial points of view talk you out of a 
broader focus. 

After all, one of the most inspir- 
ing results of the microcomputer 
revolution is that it puts enormous 
(continued on page 26) 

® P€OPL€TflLK 




The CP/M edition is in its third printing; the 
PC-DOS/MS-DOS volume took a year to research 
and write, but it's out in time for Christmas gift 
giving. Separate editions for CP/M & MS-DOS. 
Features top programs in public domain: 

- What they are - How to get them 

- When they're useful - How they work 
(Handbook plus software disks $62.95. Disks only 
$54.95. Please specify machine & disk format.) 

78 Disks of CP/M and MS-DOS Public Domain 

Software! See Christmas issue of our Quarterly or 
call for our P.D. Disk catalogue. Per disk: $11.95 

===^-=* The Ultimate Database CP/M $99.95 

Fully relational database, uses up to 16 files at 
one time, natural language interpreter — talk to 
Salvo in English, powerful 4th generation language 
— write whole programs in 2 or 3 lines. 

ChecksVj&ZBalances cp/m or ms-dos $64.95 
Easy-to-use accounting package for personal 
and business use. MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE! 

"If anyone had told me that I would be balancing 
my checkbook and enjoying it, I would have 
suggested he was a candidate for a rubber room!" 
Dave Gerrold, Profiles Magazine 

NEW! SmartKey4 for CP/M Kaypros $44.95 

NEW! SmartKey5 for MS-DOS machines $54.95 
SmartKey-II for Other CP/M Machines $44.95 
Customize your keyboard and turn your most-used 
commands into one keystroke. A perfect gift! 

SmartPrint Take control of your printer! $19.95 
SmartKey with SmartPrint (any format) $59.95 
NEW! SmartDisk Multi-format Utility $44.95 

Creates 112 disk formats on any MSDOS machine. 

RAMdisk with PC-DOS processing capability. 

256K (expandable to 1 Mb) RAMdisk runs IBM's 
PCDOS on CP/M Kaypro Osborne Xerox & Morrow. 
Co-Power 88 and 88 Plus From $324.95 

(jLemvmnOt - Charts, Graphs & Plots $59.95 
Kaypro & Osborne CP/M Demo disk $6.00 


\ 64K memory, comes pre-cabled for 1 
5!T^-<£ parallel printer. Expandable to 256K <5c 
S$tf3f :r:: "' 2 printers. Expansions just plug in, no 
mechanical skill required. 




NEW! PrilltMaster Super Graphics - Low Price 

The amazing PrintMaster lets you create - 

- Pictures - Stationary - Signs 

- Greeting Cards - Posters - Banners 
All art in this ad was created by PrintMaster! 
Runs on ANY CP/M Kaypro or Morrow & most 
MSDOS machines. Uses Epson, Gemini, Okidata, or 
Toshiba Printers. Includes 111 predefined pictures. 
Creates millions of unique designs. Very Flexible 
PrintMaster $49.95 
PrintMaster Demo Disk $6.00 

You've Never Seen Anything Like PrintMaster! 

NEW BOOK! - The Creative PrintMaster $13.95 


H Single-Sided: $1.20 each $30.00 Box 

Double-Sided: $1.40 each $35.00 Box 
Includes warranty, envelopes & labels 
Tubs and Library Boxes for Perpetual Disk Growth: 
5 Library Boxes (10 disks each) $10.95 

Disk Tub (holds 25 disks) $15.95 

Disk Tub (holds 50 disks) $19.95 

Locking Disk Tub (50 disks) $22.95 

PHOENIX The Incredible Self Re-Inking ribbon! 

Guaranteed to outlast 12 mortal ribbons. Fits 
Okidata, Gemini & some C.Itohs. Pick one: 

Printaholic $15.95 Heavy Abuser $15.95 

Daily Habit $15.95 Occasional User $15.95 

Write or call for our complete catalogue. 
Attention Programmers! We publish software. 
Contact us for information. 


P.O. Box 863652- A 
Piano, TX 75086 
1-800-PT BOOKS 

Inside Texas call: 1-214-423-4634 

Please include product price in U.S. Dollars + $3 
shipping <5c handling, $7 for COD ($12 surface or 
$25 air mail outside U.S.) Texas residents add tax. 

Life at 300 Baud 

Regional networks bridge the gap 

by Brock N. Meeks 

Correction: The Smithsonian 
Institute is in the process of com- 
puterizing its databases - it is not 
yet finished. The phone number 
listed in the December 1985 col- 
umn connects to the Smithsonian's 
General Information Desk. When 
calling for a database search, you 
must specify the area or subject 
you're interested in and askfor the 
curator of that area. Curators act as 
a clearinghouse for all information 
requests. And do remember that 
this is a service which is provided 
as a courtesy to the public. 

For years modem owners were 
caught in a classic David and 
Goliath scenario. Until early 
1984, there were two options for 
micro-based telecommunications. 
You could log on to expensive, 
multi-user information utilities, 
such as CompuServe or The 
Source, or free, single-user bulletin 
board systems (BBSs). There was 
no middle ground — until now. 

A new wave in online telecom- 
munications is beginning to break 
on the shore. This new wave is 
formed by a series of online sys- 
tems known as regional networks. 

Standing in the gap 

A regional network stands in the 
gap between the basement BBS 
and the pampered mainframe that 
resides in the air-conditioned envi- 
ronment of an information utility. 

14 Profiles 

A BBS is like a commune: 
cramped, cozy, with limited access 
to limited resources. 

A commercial information util- 
ity is a metropolis: crowded, often 
impersonal, with overwhelming 

A regional network is like a small 
Midwestern town. It has a unique 
identity it's simple to travel around 
in, and it provides easy access to 
adequate resources. 

In terms of online costs, too, 
regional networks stand between 
the BBS and the information utility 
Typically, these networks charge 
low hourly rates (between $3 and 
$4 an hour, compared to as much as 
$27 an hour for The Source). 

Anatomy of a network 

The services available on a regional 
network are usually community- 
oriented and compare favorably to 
the most popular services offered 
on information utilities. 

Regional networks allow organi- 
zations to create special interest 
groups (SIGs). These SIGs provide 
forums for discussing relevant 
issues, databases that allow the 
storage and retrieval of important 
information, real-time computer 
conferencing, and a centralized 
meeting place. 

Community businesses often 
sponsor databases that allow cus- 
tomers to interact with them, ask 
questions about products, and get 
new product updates. 

State and local governments are 
also using regional networks to 

expand their distribution of infor- 
mation. In Texas, on a system 
called The Electric Pages (TEP) , the 
governor has his own SIG, as does 
the Department of Parks and Wild- 
life. In Colorado, on a system called 
Chariot, summaries of current 
Federal and State telecommunica- 
tions legislation are online for in- 
spection and discussion. 

Regional networks run on multi- 
user minicomputers. The number 
of users a regional network can 
handle simultaneously (a factor of 
how much money the system has) 
ranges from 12 to 40. 

A rose by any other name 

The tag "regional network" is 
something of a misnomer. The user 
base of a typical system consists of 
callers from a single area code, 
making the system more like a 
"metro network." However, with the 
rise of alternative long-distance 
carriers like MCI and Sprint, 
regional networks are seeing an 
increase in long-distance users. 

Some systems are developing 
intricate store-and-forward elec- 
tronic mail (Email) networks. This 
capability allows you to dial into 
the closest network and send Email 
to someone on a system across the 
country, provided the system you're 
sending to is a member of the Email 
network. At a predetermined time, 
your regional network gathers all 
stored (outgoing) mail and for- 
wards (delivers) it to the appro- 
priate system. 

(continued on page 18) 

Copyright © 1986 Brock N. Meeks. All rights reserved 

^CfX^^ Introducing 

V * With A Classic 

Your Order For Form Fitting Kaypro Cover 

Any 2 Or More Items On At last, the classic Kaypro dust cover you'll be proud 

»p. . q r> r> 4. to own anc * use - This first rate computer cover is made 

I nese next » (jet a from a premium, lint free, static free, washable, free 

breathing, and fade resistant sailcloth. It comes in a rich 
looking Navy blue or Royal blue, and has a smart 
contrasting silver gray piping and trim that adds a 
superior finished look. Made to form fit and protect a 
Kaypro that is set up and ready to use. 

Photo: Form fitting Kaypro cover. 


12 Foot 
Coiled Extension 

Cord for Your 
Kaypro keyboard 

Send for your free cord today. 

Enjoy that detachable keyboard. 

One Free Cord Per Customer 

Regarding this coiled retractible cord: Don't be 
fooled by cheap imitations. This cord has been 
specially manufactured to match the unique 
electrical requirements of the Kaypro computer 
and meets demanding Kaypro-like specs. It is 
guaranteed to work with every model Kaypro 
II, IV, and 10. Don't settle for less from copycat 
advertisers. Other cords will fail and may hurt 
your system. Order your free cord today. 

This free offer applies to any 2 or more separate 
items. For example, a Kaypro Quality Cover 
and one template equals 2 items; 2 templates 
equal 2 items, but a single box of diskettes is 
one item. We must reserve the right to end this 
offer. Don't be disappointed, order today. 12 foot 
cords sold separately at $12.95 per cord. 

For a limited time only, your price for this factory direct, 
custom made, sailcloth Quality Cover is $16.95. When 
ordering, remember to indicate color preference. This 

special low price is subject to change. You must be completely satisfied with 
this cover or we'll refund your money immediately. Order today. 

Matching sailcloth 
printer covers are $14.95 each. 
Complete list sent with order. 
New. Special two-piece Kaypro sailcloth cover. 
Set covers CPU and keyboard. $19.95 per set. 

Quality tailoring 
Easy care fabrics 
Attractive colors 
Professional appeal 

Richly tailored Inside and out. Look inside any of our Quality Covers; see the ultimate 
finishing; we use machines that sew with 3 needles so that no edge will ever unravel or shed lint. 
We stress perfection because you deserve the best. Compare for long-lasting satisfaction. 



$17.95 for one 
$34 for two 
$49 for three 
$62 for four 

IT. 1 1 - 

Learn Software Commands 

Super, Now Available: 

_ Wordstar/MailMerge 

Stiper raSt dBase II, CalcStar 

Time-saving Kleertex templates are made from a 
durable, non-glare plastic, and can be put on 
and lifted off the keyboard instantly. The 
software commands on Kleertex templates are 
easy to read and are conveniently arranged in 
alphabetical order. With a Kleertex template on 

• Toll Free • 

Order Desk Only 
800-533-8049 USA 
800-624-5628 CA 

Information Calls 
(805) 524-4189 


330 Central Avenue • Fillmore, CA 93015 

© 1985 Central Computer Products 

Kaypro is a trademark of the Kaypro Corporation 

Enemies of Kaypro®... 


Surges, and Noise 

The Kaypro has enemies. But now you can 
protect it from the mish mash of electrical 
currents that race through your home or 
business. Powerful up-surges of current can 
actually blow out your machine. Less 
powerful, barely noticeable spikes, surges, and 
noise can silently degrade your system in 
time, ruining chips, destroying data, and 
causing expensive service calls. 

your keyboard, software commands are only a glance away, at your fingertips. This makes it easy to 
learn programs that come with your Kaypro. Stop going back to the book to get a software 
command. Now you can learn software commands super fast, so you can make better use of your 
powerful programs. The expertly organized Wordstar/Mailmerge template, for example, gets you 
into word processing in half the time. A special dBase II template cuts through the learning curve 
like a knife and gets you programming sooner. Kleertex templates for CalcStar, Perfect Writer/Filer 
and Perfect Calc get you moving fast on these programs too. Once you try Kleertex templates, you'll 
wonder how you ever got along without these useful tools. Central's special price for one template is 
$17.95. Choose any two templates for $34 and save. If you like, you may combine purchase of any 
of these four templates for super savings. Complete satisfaction is guaranteed or money-back. Makes 
learning software a breeze. Great value. Order today. 


Description List Price 

"Spikes and surges 
can be the greatest 
threat to your computer 
outside a 4 year old 
child with a jelly 
sandwich aimed for 
the disk drive slot." 

2 outlets, 


$ 79.00 

$ 59.00 

4 outlets, 


$ 89.00 

$ 69.00 

6 outlets, 


$ 99.00 

$ 79.00 




$ 99.00 



$ 89.00 

$ 69.00 



6 outlets LC S RB NF. 

D: Connects direct to grounded wail jack. 
LC: Includes 6 foot long heavy duty line cord. 

S: Includes illuminated on/off switch 
NF: Includes EMI/RFI noise filter. 
RB: Includes reset button. 
OL: Includes outlet. 
PJ: Includes 2 phone jack receptacles. 
UA: Includes under voltage alarm/brown out protection. 
All units include the added security of a 4 amp fuse. 
Unique Panamax EMI/RFI noise filters provide 
protection in common and transverse mode. Essential for 
modem communications, multi-user stations, etc. 
All Panamax units are factory guaranteed for 60 months. 

"Power line-associated problems 
are estimated to cause nearly 70 
to 90 percent of the malfunctions 
in the IBM PC." 

"Overvoltage can be fatal 
to both data and hardware alike." 
P.C. Magazine, March 1983 

The Kaypro manual states, 'Line filtering I 

will protect your Kaypro... from power surges or other undesirable 
occurrences from the power source." Surge protection will help your Kaypro 
provide years of trouble-free service. Also, if you plan to use your Kaypro 
to access information by modem, you must have a reliable high frequency 
noise (EMI/RFI) suppressor to insure against data loss and scrambling. 

There are many "toy" surge suppressors on the market. They are smartly colored, but beware. The performance 
difference is amazing. The best surge and noise suppressors on the market are made by Panamax. Our 
"Panamax Challenge Certificate" tells all. It is a startling comparison of Panamax quality with 11 other well- 
known brands. One aspect of this revealing report tells how Panamax responds to and cuts surges in 5 or less 
pico seconds, while most other suppressors respond at a comparatively slow 5 to 50 nanoseconds! 
Check our regular low prices. Try the Panamax of your choice for 15 days. Receive the "Panamax Challenge 
Certificate" with your purchase. If not completely satisfied with your purchase, return for immediate full refund. 
Your Kaypro deserves Panamax protection, the best there is. Order today. 







acrylic tray 

holds 70 


diskettes. Flip-up lid keeps out dust, 

debris, and moisture, and locks 

securely to guard your important work. 

Comes with 7 dividers that make for 

easy filing and keep floppies upright to 

prevent bending, warping, and 

scratching. Tough metal lock never 

comes in contact with diskettes because 

it is enclosed in a plastic housing. 

Super value at $23 for one, or $21 

each if you buy 2 or more. Keep prying 

eyes and sticky fingers away from your 

important data. Order today. 


Top quality, individually tested 36 pin 
Centronics-type standard parallel cables 
for all model Kaypros. These are made 
to work hard and long. Guaranteed. 
5 ft cables ... $19.95 each 
10 ft cables ... $25.95 each 

Top quality, individually tested ribbon 
modem RS 232C cables designed with 
reinforced clamps for a sure continuous 
connection and made especially for 
your Kaypro. These work every time. 
2 ft cables ... $14.95 each 
5 ft cables ... $16.95 each 

* # # 

800-533-8049 USA Central Computer Products 800-624-5628 CA 

Please turn page 

The All New SmartKey II Central £° m ? "* er P"> ducts 

330 Central Avenue 

Fillmore, California 93015 

(805) 524-4189 

Mail Order service you can depend on. 

• Personal Service 

• Low Prices 

• Fast deliveries 

• Tele-Support 

Price Protection Policy 

Central Computer will meet or beat any price 
listed in this magazine on products also advertised 
in our ads. If you see a lower price, please tell us. 
We'll beat that price and pay shipping too. 
Try our lightning fast service today. Thank you. 

— now comes with Windows and much more! 

Get ready for real computing power! 
SmartKey II Plus Version 4.2 now comes with 
windows. Lets you redefine every key on 
your keyboard from inside any program. Just 
push a key, a window opens up on your 
screen, redefine the key. Move the cursor 
anywhere in the window. Make corrections in 
the window. Simple. Redefining keys is easier 
than ever. Lots of new features. Will save you 
thousands of keystrokes. Really fun. Touch a 
key and spell out your entire name and 
address. Or anything else you want. Unlike 
similar programs, SmartKey does not interfere 
with the regular function of your keyboard. 
Once you've tried it, computing will never be 
the same. Lets you save numerous complex 
command codes, boilerplate paragraphs, 
inventory numbers, or whatever, and inject 
any of them into your work with a single key. 

Central's super priced $45 SmartKey II 
Plus combo pak includes a free copy of 
SmartPrint II Plus, a program that greatly 
enhances the operation of dot matrix printers, 
and a free copy of Paul Golding's $15.95 
book, Screen Smarts, The Computer Tamer's 
Guide. This book tells how you can use 
SmartKey to turn your computer into a 
supercharged mean machine. Save time and 
money. Order today to get this hard hitting 
$95 software and book combo for only $45. 
30 Day Moneyback Guarantee. Test drive it. 

Attention: Sorry XtraKey. XtraKey users who want to see 
definite power, turn in your master disk. Get a $10 credit. 

Text Filing Machine 

Turn your Kaypro in to a powerful text 
filing machine. SuperFile is a textual matter 
database manager unlike any other. It puts 
you in control of your information. It allows 
you to easily store and retrieve notes, letters, 
random thoughts, contracts, depositions, 
invoices, new product information, sales 
reports, reference articles, scripts, abstracts, 

bibliographies, customer profiles, and much more. SuperFile accepts as many as 65,000 entries -per 
database; allows 512,000 keystrokes per record, each of which can have up to 250 keywords; and 
indexes information you've stored on as many as 255 diskettes per database. Powerful. 

Input for a SuperFile database comes from your word processor, so you can easily include 
information you already have into a database without having to re-key it. No fancy fields to define. 
This is a completely free-form database system. No programming language to learn. There's nothing 
difficult here. You can be up and running within minutes. SuperFile uses logical searching 
procedures to find your information fast. SuperFile searches from 60 to 400 entries per second. 
Save yourself the time and effort of filing and cross-filing information by hand or in overly structured 
data fields. SuperFile lists at $195. Central's price is $145. Order today to get SuperFile fast 

Full Power Computing 

T/Maker Integrated is a highly acclaimed 
powerhouse program that can turn your CP/M 
Kaypro into a computing workhorse. At last, 
you can enjoy productive computing like never 
before. Imagine doing full-featured word 
processing, relational database management, 
spreadsheet analysis, horizontal bar chart 
graphics, and checking your spelling all within 
the same program. No more switching back and 
forth between barely compatible programs to 
accomplish these simple tasks. T/Maker 
Integrated is universally acknowledged as a 
unique integrated software system that is just 
plain easy to learn. There is an alternative to 
doing things the hard way. T/Maker can put the 
hidden and largely untapped power of your 
Kaypro at your command. T/Maker Integrated is 
regularly $450. Central is proud to offer this 
outstanding multi-function package for the low, 
low introductory price of $179. Yes, this 
includes the entire feature-packed T/Maker 
package, so please treat yourself to this excellent 
super productive software today. Experience the 
power of true software integration on your 
Kaypro. Order T/Maker today. Get it fast. 


Print Bright Pages 

Wow! You'll be amazed at the compliments you'll 
get from using this program. No wonder. FontStar 
makes you look good. All you do is put a few 
FontStar commands in your letter, bulletin, 
invitation, or manuscript, and print. It's easy. 

Don't let FontStar's low price fool you. It's a 
powerful program. Although it's not as versatile as 
Fancy Font, it really brightens up plain jane dot 
matrix printing and for much less too. Works with 
Epson FX, RX, MX, and LQ1500 printers. Also 
works with Epson compatibles like Gemini printers 
too. Gives same results. Impressive. Good looking 
reports, letters, invitations, announcements, etc. 

FontStar comes with 16 preprogrammed fonts, but it also lets you design your own fonts or 
character sets. FontStar doesn't require complex commands, or any tricks to operate. It makes 
typeset quality justification a snap, so everything you print looks super professional. Use as many 
fonts as you like in your documents. By the way, each font also comes with a complete set of 
foreign language characters, so printing in Spanish, French, or other European languages is a snap. 
Make your own Greek or Hebrew font sets too. Design special characters too. No matter what you 
print out, FontStar will make it look better. FontStar is only $49. Order FontStar today. Get more 
from your dot matrix Epson or compatible than you every thought possible. Order today. 

Attention: Imagine dot matrix printing with a flair. That's what FontStar does. Makes a page look bright. FontStar works with any 
word processor that produces plain ASCII files including WordStar and NewWord. Order today to get FontStar-type printing fast. 


Bodoni Italic 

Micrograms Extended 

Flash Bold 


8Q[QQ 8©[?fl0 8IUa<3©<a 

OCR B-Font 

^ o-ttttneic-itti. ^cvijiit 

<BU) <£nsitj£rj 

Sample of some of FontStar's 16 Fonts. 
Make Up Your Own Alphabet or Characters too, 

Toll Free Order Desk 

800-533-8049 USA 
800-624-5628 CA 

Product Description 



Kaypro Software 



MBasic Interactive training 
Multiple teaches how to use 
Wordstar software. Fast results. 

$ 39.95 
$ 39.95 
$ 75.00 
$ 75.00 

$ 33.00 
$ 33.00 
$ 57.00 
$ 57.00 


Turbo Pascal 3.0 

Turbo Toolbox, Software Tools 

Turbo Tutor, Step by Step 

$ 69.95 
$ 49.95 
$ 34.00 

$ 58.00 
$ 44.00 
$ 29.00 


Checks & Balances 

$ 74.95 

$ 62.00 


Quick Check + AR $195.00 
Retail Inventory + Q Register $395.00 
Quick Check Money Manager $ 95.00 
— Recommended for comprehensive ease of 

$ 69.00 


Magic Print * $195.00 
Magic Bind • $250.00 
Magic Index — includes * $295.00 
— All superior WordStar enhancers 



VersaBusiness Series 
VersaLedger II 
Any other modules 


$ 99.95 

$ 79.50 

The Real Estate Consultant $399.00 $349.00 

with The Creative Loan Consultant 

— Don't buy or sell property without this software 


Home Accountant Plus $ 99.95 $ 79.95 


Decision Analyst $139.00 $124.00 

— Use logic process for decision making nt ., 



$ 99.00 $ 74.00 


Bibliography $ 99.00 $ 82.00 

Footnote and Pair * $ 99.00 $ 79.00 

Grammatik • $ 75.00 $ 69.00 

Hyper Typer, Typing Tutor $ 39.95 $ 32.00 

Index * $ 99.00 $ 84.00 

Milestone, Project Planner $ 99.00 $ 89.00 

Bibliography and Footnote $150.00 $128.00 

Notebook $150.00 $115.00 

Writer's Pak - includes $250.00 $189.00 

all * products and Random House Checker 

— Call for prices on other DM or PT products 


Citation $185.00 $145.00 

General Ledger $185.00 $135.00 

— Easiest to use full-featured GL available 


Filebase with UTL \t^ $150.00 $ 99.00 

— Mailmerge enhancer and database manager 


FYI 3000 $395.00 $299.00 

SuperFile with Sort & Merge $195.00 $145.00 

— Free form textual matter database managers 

— Index material spread over 255 diskettes 



$ 39.95 

$ 37.00 


$ 49.95 

$ 46.00 


$ 39.95 

$ 37.00 


$ 44.95 

$ 42.00 


$ 39.95 

$ 37.00 


$ 39.95 

$ 37.00 

Zork II & III each 

$ 44.95 

$ 42.00 

Call for prices on other Infocom products 


Eureka, Disk Cataloger $ 50.00 



Mailmerge IjMaVl 


MBasic Compiler 


Uniform Kaypro II/2 

Reads 32 + machine formats 
Uniform Kaypro 2X/IV or 10 

Reads 90 + machine formats 

$ 99.00 


$ 69.95 
$ 69.95 

$ 89.00 


$ 49.95 
$ 49.95 

m ¥ 

Please turn page 

800-533-8049 USA Central Computer Products 800-624-5628 CA 

* * * 

800-533-8049 USA 
800-624-5628 CA 

Product Description 

List Central 

Kaypro Software - continued 


Mite Communications $150.00 

Mite Plus Terminal Emulations $175.00 




StatPak $495.00 


Personal Pearl $295.00 $165.00 

— Easy to use, top flight database manager 


Plu Perfect Writer CP/M 2.2E $ 39.95 $ 34.00 

Backgrounder $ 45.00 $ 39.00 

CP/M 2.2E only $ 32.00 $ 29.00 

Date Stamper $ 39.00 $ 34.00 

Data Stamper, General CP/M $ 49.00 $ 42.00 

— These don't work with Kaypro CP/M 2.2U 


Q-Pro-4 $595.00 $395.00 

— World class database manager. Many built-in 
super features including multikey file indexing 


Power! $149.00 $ 99.00 

DocuPower! $149.00 $ 99.00 

softaids IJtSrn 

MTBasic Compiler **UXlf $ 49 95 $ 46 go 

— Build windows into your programs 

Fancy Font 2.0 $180.00 $149.00 


Book of Change, I CHING $ 39.95 $ 36.00 

— Consult the Oracle. Self-reflection aid 


dFastest, dBase Fast Sort _^KV$ 89.00 $69.00 

Touch n'Go, Typing Tutor tf<@)*$ 29.00 $ 24.00 

SmartBrain, Idea Processor\**^ $ 99.00 $ 69.00 


Eliza $ 24.94 $ 22.00 

MyChess $ 34.95 $ 29.95 

Word Wiggle $ 29.95 $ 27.00 

C/80 $ 49.95 $ 45.00 

Reading Professor, Speed Read $ 59.95 $ 54.00 

— Call for prices on other Toolworks products 

SuperCalc 2 $295.00 $235.00 


Rembrandt 3.0 $ 79.95 $ 59.00 


The Accounting Partner 
Accounting Partner Integrated 
Upgrade AP to AP Integrated 

$395.00 $275.00 

$795.00 $599.00 

$400.00 $329.00 

$100.00 $ 75.00 




Disk Doctor 


StatPak, Statistical Analysis 
Forecast Plus, Time Series 



Handyman ^Sl{7 $124.95 $116.00 

— Easy install. Powerful add-on for all Kaypros 


PowerMax — 

250 Watt Battery Back-up 


256k CoPower-88 Plus $495.00 $399.00 

— Plus boards are expandable up 1 megabyte 

— RAM disk. Add PCDOS : MSDOS computer^ 


$559.00 $399.95 


Dysan SSDD Kaypro 2/II disks 10/box $ 23.00 

Dysan DSDD 2X/IV/10 disks 10/box $ 29 00 

3M SSDD Kaypro 2/II diskettes 10/box $ 18.00 

3M DSDD 2X, IV/10 diskettes 10/box $ 23.00 

3M Head Cleaning Kit $ 32.00 $ 21.95 


Compleat Kaypro II, IV & 10 $ 16.95 $ 15.00 

CP/M for the Kaypro $ 16.95 $ 15.00 

with an Introduction to dBase II 

Kaypro WP Plain & Simple $ 13.95 $ 12.50 

Using CP/M on Kaypro 10 $ 19.50 $ 18.00 

Screen Smarts, Tamer's Guide $ 15.95 $ 12.95 

Free yellow Hi-Liter pen sent with every book order. 
Prices, specifications, and offers subject to change without notice. 

Do You Wish Writing Was Easier? 

If you need to write, or want to write clearly, your Kaypro and the software program 
Punctuation and Style can help you get there faster. It improves, clarifies, and enriches your 
writing by identifying sentences with misused, redundant, faulty, cliched, or erroneous phrases, 
and shows you how to improve them. It helps you rewrite and check your work by quickly 
marking and annotating your files for easy correction. In addition to computer-fast identification 
of awkward, muddy, pompous, and wordy sentence structure, it also finds missing or improper 
punctuation, unbalanced quotes, wrong abbreviations, faulty capitalizations, and much more. 
Punctuation and Style actually improves your writing by mercilessly pointing out grammatical 
errors. After a few weeks with Oasis System's Punctuation and Style your writing is bound to 
become more dynamic, expressive, and honest. In time, you'll stop worrying about grammar and 
work on projecting ideas instead. After all, that's what writing is about. 

Punctuation and Style makes writing and rewriting much easier. The list price of Punctuation and 
Style is $125. Central's price is $95. Experience the power of this valuable "Punctuation 
Checking and Writing Improvement Software" yourself. Order today to get this program fast. 

Punctuation and Style works on files created with Wordstar or Perfect Writer. It comes with an easy to use, clearly written 
manual and is packaged in an attractive binder. Join thousands who now write with more confidence, faster, and better. 

90,000 Word 
Thesaurus at 
Your Fingertips 

Word Finder by Writing Consultants is a 
90,000 word thesaurus that is guaranteed 
to make you and your Wordstar a precise 
and powerful online writing machine. 
Word Finder is so easy to use that after 
one or two searches there's no turning 
back. Your speaking and writing 
vocabulary will improve dramatically as 
you use this program to display and 
study a rich variety of words at the push 
of a key. Find exciting words instantly. 

Word Finder was compiled by a team of 
lexicographers. It is extremely fast and 
works within Wordstar, so you never 
have to leave your file to use it. Just put 
your cursor on a word in your text, press 
the escape key twice, and a list of 
synonyms appears. Then press a key if 
you want to select and automatically 
place an alternate word in your onscreen 
text. Word Finder will help you find the 
exact word you need to properly express 
your thought. Word Finder retails at 
$124. Central's current low introductory 
price is $69. This offer may not be 
repeated. Please order today. 

Attention: Word Finder works with all Kaypros. Gives 
Wordstar text files new vim, vigor, and punch. 

Travel Case r> 

This full featured, 
padded carrying 
case is made from a 
super-material called 
"cordura." This 
material is rip, shred, 
and water resistant. 
The Coverman Kaypro case comes fully 
padded and lined, so your Kaypro is 
protected from unexpected bumps and jolts. 
Since your Kaypro is completely enclosed in 
this case, it keeps rain, sand, and other debris 
out of your machine. The Coverman case 
comes with external carrying handles and a 
detachable strap with a non-slip shoulder pad 
that comes in handy when you have to carry 
your Kaypro over a long distance. There is 
also a large interior pocket perfect for 
transporting manuals and diskettes. The 
Coverman Kaypro carrying case is regularly 
$79.95. Central is proud to offer this expertly 
constructed case at $59.95. Please indicate 
your choice of color: silver-gray, dark blue, or 
brown. All straps and carrying handles are 
black. You must be completely satisfied with 
your purchase of this handsome travel case or 
receive a refund immediately. Order today. 

* * m 

Central Computer Products 

# * 

Perfect Kaypro® Stand 

Simple, strong, 
sturdy, safe. 
These words 
describe an 
angled stand 
that provides 
a perfect spot to 
place your Kaypro. 

This stand is made from rounded, steel rods 
covered with a thick, shiny, soft, black 
polymer material that protects your Kaypro 
and table top from scratches. Unlike flat wood 
or acrylic panels used in other stands, the 
tough supporting rods of the Smart Stand 
(TM) do not obstruct air flow. In fact, since 
your Kaypro is lifted off the table top and 
gently angled by this stand, air rises up from 
under your computer, and flows freely 
through it to help keep it cool. When you're 
finished computing, you can slide the 
keyboard completely under the stand to create 
a working area on your desk. The Smart 
Stand is a super value at $34.95. Try it for 15 
days. If not completely satisfied, send it back 
for a full refund. Matching 80 or 132 column 
printer stands are only $19.95 or $23.95. 
Order today to get the Smart Stand fast. 


330 Central Avenue, Dept. 31 
Fillmore, California 93015 
_ ' __ (805) 524-4189 

Dear Central, 

Please send me the items listed below. I want fast,, 
friendly service. Remember to include my free 12 foot; 
extension cord. I understand there is no charge for thisj 
cord if I purchase 2 or more items from these 3 pages. My: 
check, money order, or card no. is enclosed. Thanks. 
Description Price 

Kaypro Model 





. Sub Total 

CA Resident 6% Tax 

Postage & Handling 


$ 3.00 

D Navy blue 

LJ Send free catalog 

LH Check enclosed 

D Visa/Mastercard # 

Exp. Date Sig, 

D Royal blue 

□ Send free 12 foot cord 

D Money Order enclosed 



. State. 

_ Zip 

Visa and Mastercard phone orders accepted. Call toll free. 

To order by mail use coupon, letter, or photo copy. Thank you. 

© 1985 Central Computer Products 1 

300 BAUD 

(continued from page 14) 

Pocketbook department 

Though regional networks provide 
capabilities far beyond those of 
simple BBSs, many users are reluc- 
tant to pay for them. 

David Hughes, co-founder of the 
Chariot system, says: "We've cre- 
ated a generation of welfare modem 
users. Bulletin boards have made 
people accustomed to free online 
communication systems. I think 
modem users have come to believe 
free online communications are a 
right, instead of a privilege." 

To soften the reluctance of users 
to pay for online access, some sys- 
tems provide a free line into the 

network. This free line allows the 
user limited access to several of the 
network's databases and discus- 
sions. This way a user can check 
out what is available on the system 
without spending any money 
These free lines are really a public 
service because they allow those 
who can't afford the expense to par- 
ticipate, at least to some degree. 

The cost of evolution 

Although the evolution of regional 
networks is encouraging, a big 
factor standing in the way of a 
mass-market breakthrough for 

Extra Desk 

the all-software pop-up desktop for Kaypro computers 

EXTRA DESK is the integrated desktop sys- 
tem designed to run on all Kaypro CP/M-80 

With EXTRA DESK running, your Kaypro 
can replace many of those items that take up 
valuable space on your desk. Just check out 
the list of functions to the right. 

Features include: 

4-function 14-digit calculator with memory 
and printed audit tape (tape can even be 
copied into EXTRA DESK's clipboard) 

Perpetual calendar (can be copied to the 

EXTRA DESK is all software (no extra hard- 
ware to complicate your system). A single com- 
mand installs EXTRA DESK into your system. 
Installation can even be performed from a 
submit file (great for turnkey applications). 

Clipboard that can grab, edit, dump, and 
transfer a live screen of text (also used to 
create up to ten 40-character key macros) 

Disk and file commands just like those built 
into CP/M 

EXTRA DESK'S menu stays 'hidden' in your 
computer's memory, always ready for action. 
You can 'pop' out of the middle of just about 
any program to use EXTRA DESK. And 
when done, EXTRA DESK restores your 
original program, ready to continue, exactly 
as you left it! 

Multi-page notepad to edit, print, and save 
whatever you please (also move text to and 
from the clipboard) 

Phone directory with automatic entry sorting 
and dialer (requires Kaypro internal modem) 

EXTRA DESK even has built-in help so you 
don't have to clutter your desk with a manual. 

Best of all is the price - $49.95 

Reference data file for easy access to often- 
needed information (comes with WordStar 
info and ASCII table, and can be expanded) 

Yes, please send me a copy of EXTRA DE 

5K for $49.95 (includes shipping) 

COD Check/M.O. enclos 

ed (CA residents add 6% sales tax) 




State: Zip: 


Gorge Road, #403, San Diego, CA 92120 

(619) 2i 


telecommunications has been 
cost. An online system in any form 
larger than a BBS has, up to now, 
cost "serious money" — somewhere 
in the $75,000 range. 

With drastic price cuts in com- 
puter products, however— for 
everything from modems to main- 
frames—a regional network can 
now be started for about $15,000. 
At first blush that seems like a lot of 
money, but consider that a regional 
network can compete with Com- 
puServe in areas like response 
time, ease of use, cost, and commu- 
nications capability, and $15,000 
doesn't seem like so much. 

Now that it is possible to set up a 
commercial network without a For- 
tune 500 credit line, the online 
community may be about to expe- 
rience an entrepreneurial push 
such as the one that drove the 
microcomputer industry in the 
early 1980s. 

The players 

Here is a brief look at the current 
lineup of pioneering regional net- 
works. All the networks run 24 
hours a day and operate at either 
300 or 1200 baud. 

Network name: Chariot 

Location: Colorado 

Phone number: (303) 632-41 1 1 

Log-on: New users can sign up 

online. MasterCard or VISA billing 


Chariot contains a unique con- 
ference on the North American 
Presentation Language Protocol 
Syntax (NAPLPS). This is the stan- 
dard used in all North American 
videotex systems. This is the only 
public system in the nation that 
supports NAPLPS. With the right 
software (which you can order 
online) users can swap videotex 
pictures back and forth. 

Chariot is ■ one of four systems 
linked in a store-and-forward 
Email network. A free line is avail- 
able to check out the system. Call 

Network name: The Electric Pages 
Location: Texas 

18 Profiles 

Phone number: (512) 472-6028 
Log-on: Enter: "free." This gets you 
into the system and allows you to 
sign up online. MasterCard or VISA 
billing available. 

This is the oldest regional net- 
work. It has 600 megs of online 
storage and is heavily used by the 
Texas educational system. 

TEP users can reduce their 
online costs by creating various 
publications. Authors of TEP elec- 
tronic publications are paid a roy- 
alty for every minute someone 
reads their work online. TEP's 
motto is "The marketplace for crea- 
tive people." 

A free line to TEP is available. 
Call (512) 472-6028. 

Network name: The Whole Earth 
'Lectronic Link (WELL) 
Location: California 
Phone number: (415) 332-6106 
Log-on: ID and password issued if 
you sign up online. MasterCard and 
VISA billing available. 

This system is owned and oper- 
ated by the people who publish the 
Whole Earth Review. Based in the 
San Francisco Bay Area, this sys- 
tem has a user base that draws 
heavily from the Silicon Valley. 

Conferences are available on top- 
ics from telecommunications law 
to games (and this is where some of 
the nation's heavyweight game 
designers hang out). The WELL is 
another system in the store-and- 
forward Email network. 

Network name: ArborNet 
Location: Michigan 
Phone number: (313) 663-6400 
Log-on: ID and password issued if 
you sign up online. MasterCard and 
VISA billing available. 

Sponsored by Network Technolo- 
gies, Inc., this system operates as a 
non-profit venture. It carries dis- 
cussion on local government and 
social issues. Local businesses and 
organizations use the system for 
feedbackfrom the public. Itis also a 
member of the store-and-forward 
Email network. 

Network name: M-Net 

XhAKcy out "keys" the 
competition. Here's why! 

"XtraKey is the best single 
purchase I have made tor my 
computer." E.M.S., 
Mt. Rainier, MD 

There's no question about it. 
The things that XtraKey can 
do through key redefinition 
just plain make your computer 
a whole lot easier and faster 
to use. 

Things like reducing long and 
complicated command se- 
quences or repetitive typing to 
one or two keystrokes. 
Bolierplate. Macros. Changing 
keyboard layouts. SmartKey II 
Plus can do this too, but that's 
about it. With XtraKey, you get 
so much more. 

Our comparison chart lists 
just a few of XtraKey's 
features. We could have in- 
cluded XtraKey's built-in 


Keys may be redefined even while running anothei 
program ("on-the-fly"). 

Mistakes made while entering a definition can be cor- 
rected without having to reenter. 

All keys, including numeric keypad and cursor keys, 
can be directly redefined. 

Number of extra definition sets ("shifted") that can be 
used at any one time. 

Maximum number of characers per definition or all 
definitions combined. 

Bytes of memory required per 500 bytes of definition 

Definitions can be sent to printer, CRT, or punch 
device (in any combination). 





II Plus 






Definitions can "chain to" 

or activate other 

Automatic definition file loading. 

Disk space required in minimum configuration to use 
and save definitions. 











SmartKey II Plus is a trademark of Software Research Technologies, Inc. 

screen dump to printer function, typewriter mode, caps lock function, printer on/off feature printer out- 
put to screen redirection, or built-in menu. But we didn't. After all, things are one-sided enough. 
XtraKey is easy-to-use and comes with a 90-page manual and quick reference card. Now only $39.95 , 

"It works and it's solid . . . well worth it . . ." Tom Enright, Technical Editor, Profiles 
XScreen is the clever program that can make instant copies of your Kaypro's current screen display on 
your printer OR save screen copies to disk in standard word processing text files. Works any time even 
while running your favorite programs. Print out menus, addresses, spreadsheet totals, E-mail messages 
etc. or save to disk and use your word processor to enter them into a report or a letter. XScreen is easy- ' 
to-use and requires no installation. Now only $19.95 . 



The Xperts' new system examination tool does 
things your mother or DDT never taught you. There's 
save console ouput to file; memory search, substitu- 
tion and type; direct I/O; display parameters; screen 
restore and more. 

What's remarkable is that XtraTech allows your 
system and other programs to run normally, yet you 
have access to XT's features at any time. (For exam- 
ple, you could patch WordStar while it's running and 
see the effects of your patches immediately.) 
XtraTech is menu-driven and requires no installation! 
Only $19.95 . 




Until now, CP/M users wanting to 
print out extra-wide spreadsheets or 
reports could only twiddle their 
thumbs and watch while MS-DOS'ers 
we're using, a nifty program that turns 
everything "sideways". Twiddle no 
longer... Side2 for CP/M is here. 
No more gluing or taping. Take that 
25-year 200-column monster finan- 
cial plan and print it down your paper 
instead of across. Only $24.95 . 

Side2 requires an Epson, Gemini, Okidata or 
compatible dot-matrix graphics printer. Other 
printers being added, contact Xpert Software 
for information. Side2 works with any program 
producing textfile output including Perfect 
Calc, dBase II, CalcStar, WordStar etc. 


All programs will run on ALL CP/M (8-bit) Kaypros. To order, send check or money order for program(s) plus $3 00 ship- 
ping in US. and Canada. California residents MUST add 6% sales tax. SPECIAL OFFER - Order XtraKey and get 
XtraTech, XScreen or Side2 for only $10.00 each. Specify computer model and disk format (single or double sided) VISA 
and Master Card accepted (provide card number and expiration date). All orders please include telephone number. 

Xpert Software, 8865 Polland Avenue, San Diego, CA 92123 (619) 268-0112 

January 19 

PANGLOSS turns WORDSTAR™ into a great 

U OLVSpeS SlKfflffTOtt 

IlMuiHTe no— pyccKH 


>-* O* I 

Vxrauj 1 ? l^n^n fOphra 

PANGLOSS lets you create and edit bilingual text with 
WordStar. You get 94 foreign letters in addition to 
all the English letters. All letters are displayed on the 
screen and printed on dot or daisy printers, including 
the Juki™ Naturally, you write Arabic and Hebrew 
right-to-left. PANGLOSS makes mixing languages 
a snap! 

Order Now! We Accept VISA and MasterCard I Call 
[503] 484-0520. For Kaypros™ PANGLOSS costs 

For MATHEMATICAL word processing, see the re- 
view of CHARTECH in the June Profiles. Our products 
run on most systems that run WordStar. 


P.O. Box 10545, Eugene, OR 97440 

300 BAUD 


Most experts agree 
protection for small 

«V> ; r?i 

that the best legal 
. businesses and in- 
dividuals is "Get It In Writing". Now there is a 
simple way to protect yourself by having 
ALL of your business transactions properly 
"""aqy documented. 

on 146 forms in 8 business categories dealing with Loans and Debts, Credits 
and Collections, Buying and Selling Goods, Employment and much more. 

necessary to protect your Corporation from losing its valuable tax status. It 
provides the necessary outlines for Minutes of Stockholders, Directors and 
Special Meetings, Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or By-Laws and 
many more forms. 

that enables you to produce an exact duplicate of the business form or a 
"customized" version with a few keystrokes in your Word Processor. 
Depending on the power of your Word Processor, you can mix and match 
clauses, type in lists of names, and generate many forms in succession. No 
expensive legal fees, either! 


$99.50 + $4.50 S&H, and comes with a 30 day 
"No-Risk" Money Back Guarantee. Visa and 
MasterCard accepted. Available in KAYPRO 
or KAYPRO 16 (IBM-PC) format. Other 
formats available. Write or call to order or 
request our FREE brochure. 

The Complete Book of Corporate Forms (c) Enterprise Publishing Inc. The Basic Book of Business Agreements (c) Enterprise 
Publishing Inc. KAYPRO (tm) KAYPRO Corp. IBM-PC (tm) IBM Corp. 



851 Parkview Blvd. 

Pittsburgh. PA 15215 


Location: Michigan 
Phone number: (313) 994-6333 
Log-on: ID and password issued. 
This is a free system. 

This system is run on an Altos 
computer in the sysop's apartment. 
Located in a college town, its user 
base is primarily college age. Dis- 
cussions center on current events 
on the national and international 

This system is the prototype for 
Chariot and ArborNet. M-Net is a 
member of the Email network. 

Network name: Real Estate Infor- 
mation Network (REIN) 
Location: New "fork 
Phone number: (for information 
only) (914) 358-2335. 

This system started out to be 
just an information database con- 
taining multiple listings for real 
estate and mortgage brokers. It is 
now much more. There is a shop-at- 
home section, an electronic publi- 
cations database, and an option 
called the "Midnight Hackers Spe- 
cial," where a small monthly fee 
allows users unlimited online time 
during off hours. 


Will regional networks replace the 
large, national information util- 
ities? It's too soon to tell, but it's 
likely they will for some users. 

There are those who feel that 
CompuServe and The Source, like 
other bureaucratic organizations, 
are slow to respond to customer 
wants and needs (like upgrading 
software or instituting new ser- 

A regional network tends to be 
designed around the wants and 
needs of its user base. Because a 
regional network can customize its 
services to satisfy its users, we 
could see fair numbers of users 
heading for community-oriented 
regional networks. 

These regional networks could 
become a haven for information 
utility refugees and a "home base" 
for thousands just discovering the 
("Gee, a modem for Christmas!") 
wonder of telecommunications.M J 

20 Profiles 

by Ted Silveira 

With 16-bit IBM-compati- 
ble MS-DOS computers 
getting so much attention 
lately, some CP/M users are begin- 
ning to feel as insecure as a plow 
mule at the Kentucky Derby. 

After all, with an MS-DOS ma- 
chine you can get 640K or more of 
RAM, famous software that won't 
run on CP/M computers, and slots 
that virtually guarantee you will 
always be able to add the latest 
hardware to your computer. 

So why stick with an 8-bit CP/M 
Kaypro? I'm sure you've heard 
some of the reasons — you don't 
have to learn to use a new com- 
puter, new operating system, and 
new software; you don't have to 
worry about transferring all your 
valuable data from CP/M to MS- 
DOS. But there's another reason 
that most people still overlook- 

A tale of two computers 

Think about the following facts. In 
the July /August 1985 issue, PRO- 
FILES' technical editor Thomas 
Enright ran some speed tests in his 
review of the Kaypro 286i. Among 
the computers tested were a 
Kaypro 4 (your basic CP/M com- 
puter with two floppy disk drives) 
and an IBM XT (using only the 
floppy disk, not the hard disk). 

In a shell sort of 5,000 elements, 
the Kaypro 4 took 34.35 seconds; 
the IBM 41. 18 seconds. To write 23 
lines of 75 characters to the screen 
100 times, the Kaypro 4 took 1 

Copyright © 1986 Ted Silveira. All rights reserved. 

Flea Market 

CP/M: Peak performance is the bottom line 

minute, 52.60 seconds; the IBM 4 
minutes, 7.17 seconds (those IBM 
screens are s-l-o-w). And to write 
3,000 82-byte records to the disk, 
the Kaypro 4 took 3 minutes, 58.43 
seconds; the IBM 3 minutes, 26.88 

In his Advanced dBASE II 
User 's Guide, Adam Green ran four 
dBASE II speed tests involving 
sorting, indexing, and displaying 
mailing lists of 100, 500, and 1 ,000 
names using a floppy-disk Kaypro 
2 and a hard-disk IBM XT. The 
Kaypro came out on top every time. 

How could a floppy-disk Kaypro 
be so much faster than a hard-disk 
IBM? Looking back at Enright's test 
results, I can only conclude it's 
because 1) the Kaypro is a little 
faster than the IBM in internal pro- 
cessing; 2) the Kaypro is much 
faster than the IBM in displaying 
things on the screen; 3) the IBM 

puter's performance by its tech- 
nical specifications, but only by the 
amount of work you can get out of it. 
Of course, there are special cases— 
the people who must create huge 
spreadsheets using Lotus 1-2-3 
will have to have IBM clones. But for 
most of us, all that matters is get- 
ting the most work done in the least 
time with the least effort. 

Improve the operator 

The biggest bottleneck in com- 
puter performance is the computer 
operator. In many cases, your com- 
puter spends more time waiting for 
you to tell it what to do than actu- 
ally doing it. You can speed things 
up by investing some time in learn- 
ing to use what you've already got. 
Learn to touch-type, as Sarah 
Wernick suggested in her review of 
touch typing programs ("The Ulti- 

You can't judge a com- 
puter's performance 
by its technical 

hard disk is only a little faster than 
the Kaypro floppy disk. It's also pos- 
sible that the CP/M version of 
dBASE II is more efficient than the 
MS-DOS version. 

What does it all mean? 

On the surface, it suggests that if 
you want to use dBASE II, you're 
better off with a Kaypro than an 
IBM. More significantly, I think it 
means that you can't judge a corn- 

mate Computer Speed-Up," in 
September 1985), and study your 
software to learn its secrets. A 
sophisticated user on a slow com- 
puter will always out-perform an 
ordinary user on a fast one. By read- 
ing and experimenting you'll dis- 
cover that you can bang in several 
WordStar commands without wait- 
ing for the first one to finish, and 
that a dBASE II "COPY . . . WHILE" 
command runs about ten times as 

January 21 

"If tax preparation is not your 
business, then our advice is to keep it 
simple and cheap. TAXCALC is a good 
option at $59.. .especially when it prints 
your forms for you." 

PROFILES Magazine April 1985 


- 15 most frequently used federal income tax 
forms and schedules 

- Prints on IRS approved forms 

- Automatic calculations and transfers among 

- On-line help 

- Free telephone support 

- Automatically computes federal income tax 
using schedules or tables 

- Computes state sales tax and income averagin 

- Runs on most CPM and MSDOS computers 



iim imc call: 704-366-3347 

For information write: 

Southwest Computing P.O. Box 706, Santa Teresa, NM 88008 

•Formerly TAXCALC84 




Computer Programs for Church Programs 

P.O. Box 23190 Nashville, TN 37202 (615) 269-6428 

fast as a similar "COPY 


Improve the software 

The right software. Make sure 
your main software packages are 
up to their jobs. Perfect Filer and 
DataStar are good enough for list 
management, but for heavy-duty 
databases, you need dBASE II. 
Likewise, both Perfect Calc and 
CalcStar are just fine for light 
spreadsheets, but for serious finan- 
cial work you should probably get 
SuperCalc 2 or MultiPlan. Word- 
Star is probably the best all-around 
CP/M word processor, but if you 
really crave speed you can try 
either WRITE or Vedit Plus. 

Key definition programs. Get a 
key definition program— XtraKey 
Smartkey II, MagiKey — and learn 
how to use it. By reducing a compli- 
cated series of commands to one or 
two keystrokes, these can super- 
charge any software. Most are 
cheap (around $50), and once you 
have one, you'll never give it up. 

The Z-System. Install the Z-Sys- 
tem (ZCPR3 and its companions) 
on your computer. As an operating 
system, the Z-System makes MS- 
DOS look old and cranky. It does for 
your whole computer what a key 
definition program does for a pro- 
gram like WordStar — letting you 
automate and integrate your work 
as never before (see articles on the 
Z-System this month and last for a 
sample). And the price is right — 
anywhere from zero to $160, de- 
pending on how much work you are 
willing to do and how good your 
public domain resources are. 

Improve the hardware 

Speed-up kits. If you have an old 
('83 model) Kaypro, you can 
upgrade its clock speed (the speed 
at which its main processing chip 
runs) from 2.5 MHz to 5 MHz 
through a very simple modification 
involving a couple of wires and a 
new chip. You'll find information on 
this speedup modification in back 
issues of Micro Cornucopia (a good 
technical magazine— see their ad 
in any PROFILES). If you're ner- 
vous about taking a soldering iron 

22 Profiles 

to your Kaypro and can't find any- 
one to do it for you, you can get 
commercial speedup kits. 

Improved ROMs. Whether you 
have an old or new Kaypro, get a 
■new ROM (read-only memory) chip. 
These new chips speed up your 
disk reads and writes, give you 
faster screen displays on most new 
Kaypros, and let you run up to four 
floppy disk drives (including the 
790K quad-density drives). The 
chips sell for $60-$80. 

Hard disks. Add a hard disk. As 
Kaypro 10 owners know, hard disks 
store much more information than 
floppies, usually at least 10 mega- 
bytes (10.000K), and transfer it to 
and from your computer more 
quickly (if they are properly in- 
stalled—it's possible to make a hard 
disk work as slowly as a floppy). 
This can dramatically improve the 
performance of programs that use 
the disk a lot (like WordStar). You 
can get an add-on kit with a 10- 
megabyte hard disk for your 
Kaypro starting at about $1,000. 
(See "Adding a Hard Disk," October 

RAM disks. Add a RAM disk. A 
RAM disk is a hardware attach- 
ment full of memory chips that 
your computer thinks is an ordi- 
nary disk drive. The RAM disk is 
very fast, faster than a hard disk. 
Its disadvantage is that all informa- 
tion on a RAM disk is lost when you 
turn off the power— you must save 
all important information onto a 
real disk before you quit. RAM 
disks may hold anywhere from 
256K to 1 megabyte (1.000K). 
Prices start around $300 if you add 
your own memory chips. 

How do you choose between a 
hard disk and a RAM disk? Here's a 
crude rule of thumb. If you find 
yourself constantly running out of 
disk space, or if you usually swap 
disks a number of times during a 
work session, go for the hard disk. If 
you don't swap disks very often or if 
speed is more important than any- 
thing else, go for the RAM disk. 
Ideally, you'll get both. 

Printer buffers. Get a printer 
buffer. These devices are placed 

between your computer and your 
printer. They receive a file from 
your computer as fast as it can send 
it, store the file, and then feed it to 
the printer as fast as it can print. 
Instead of tying up your computer 
for half an hour while a file prints, 
you can dump the file to the buffer 
in a few minutes and then go on to 
run another program. Some buffers 
can also print multiple copies. 
If you added everything I've men- 

tioned to your Kaypro, you'd have a 
fire-breather; but that's not exactly 
the point. The point is to get the 
most useful work out of your com- 
puter for the least effort. If you feel 
you need more performance, that 
you're working too hard for too little 
result, don't assume that the an- 
swer is an IBM clone. In many 
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Learning to operate a computer 
isn't easy — everyone needs, help at 
one time or another. This precisely 
the reason users' groups were born. 

Basically, a users' group is a col- 
lection of computer owners and 
users who learn from each other. 
These are non-profit membership 
organizations devoted to making 
life with a computer easier. 

Kaypro Users' Groups (KUGs) 
exist in every state, in Canada, and 
in countries all over the world. 
There are two groups in France, one 
in Belgium, one in Germany, plus 
others in Finland, Switzerland, 
Saudi Arabia, and Australia. 

All officially recognized KUGs 
are recorded in a database. These 
groups receive periodic informa- 
tional mailings and have access to 
KUG support programs offered by 
the corporation. 

Official KUGs will also receive 
ONKUG The Official Newsdiskette 
of Kaypro Users' Groups, compiled 
by Kaypro Corporation. 

Finding your KUG 

To find the KUG closest to you, 
write to the KUG Manager at Kay- 
pro Corporation and include your 
home address, state, and zip code. 
He will send you a list of KUGs in 
your immediate area. 

To register a KUG with Kaypro 
Corporation (and be entitled to cor- 
porate support offers), you again 
should notify the KUG Manager. 
Write to: 

Jim Durkin, KUG Manager 

Kaypro Corporation 

533 Stevens Avenue 

Solana Beach, CA 92075. 

Or call his BBS at (619) 2594437 , 
300/1200 baud. Logon as a "new- 
user," or leave message for sysop, to 
apply for a password. □ 

24 Profiles 

Back Issues 

Some back issues of PROFILES are 
available. Highlights of recent 
issues are detailed below. We'll send 
you the desired issue(s) for $4.00 
each, including postage and han- 
dling. Enclose your name and 
address along with a check or 
money order payable to Kaypro 
Corp. and mail to: 


Attn: Back Issues 

P.O. Box 2889 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

March '85 

• Unique applications 

• Computerized speechwriting 

• Statistical software roundup 

April '85 

• Famous users 

• dBASE and the real-time clock 

• Tax prep software 

May '85 

• Alvin Toffler interview 

• MBASIC marvels 

• Telecommuting 

June '85 

• Micros in the Third World 

• Perfect Series ver. 2.0 review 
♦Tracking the "desaparecidos" 

July/August '85 

• $100,000 a year freelancing 

• Customizing WordStar 

• Hardware review of 286i 

September '85 

• CP/M educational software 

• DU (Disk Utility), part 1 

• Disk drive diagnostics 

October '85 s 

• MBASIC to Turbo 

• Sorting algorithms 

• C programming language 

November '85 

• dBASE general ledger 

• Bookkeeping with P. Calc 

• Accounting software roundup 

December '85 

• Z-System, part 1 

• Key definition programs 

• RCPM software 


Now you can have the perfect word for 
your thought in seconds without taking 
your fingers off the keyboard. WORD 
FINDER is the electronic thesaurus that 
becomes an extra function inside your 
word processor. Whenever you give the 
command, WORD FINDER reads the word 
the cursor is on and pops open a window 
of synonyms. Pick one, and the new word 
replaces the old, automatically. WORD 
FINDER provides 90,000 synonyms for over 9,000 words, nearly twice 
that of other thesaurus programs. Yet, WORD FINDER uses only 27K of 
RAM and keeps all the synonyms in a 157K file that can be kept on any 
disk drive. (A new, even larger database with 150,000 synonyms for 
15,000 words will also be available in December, 1985.) 

WORD FINDER will quickly help you make your point eloquently, 
clearly and concisely. So put pizazz (punch, sizzle, flair) in your writing 
by putting WORD FINDER in your word processor, today. 

WORD FINDER works inside most popular word processors,* and it's 
fast and easy to install. Just ask a writer: 

WORD FINDER is an affordable adjunct for whipping (flogging, thrashing) your 
prose into shape quickly and efficiently, without leaving the document file 
you're working on. 

—David Obregon, PC Magazine 

"WordStar, WordStar 2000, Multimate, Word Perfect, Pfs:Write, 
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(continued from page 12) 

power in the hands of people who 
haven't had it before, not only in 
affluent industrialized countries 
but elsewhere as well. 

Bruce Herrick 
Lexington, Virginia 

Just a note to let you know that I 
appreciate the mix PROFILES pro- 
vides. Third World use of Kaypros 
was excellent, as were the Buckley 
and Toffler interviews. 

I live in Dodoma, Tanzania. My 
Kaypro 2 is mainly used in word 
processing, but also I've been work- 
ing on a Maasai-to-English diction- 
ary. I've also published a book with 
my Kaypro as the typesetter. 

Doug Priest, Jr. 
Dodoma, Tanzania 

Beyond the call of duty 

We recently had occasion to pur- 
chase two different proportional 
spacing programs for use with our 
Kaypro 2 ('83). Both were pur- 
chased after we saw the respective 
ads in PROFILES. 

We have a Xerox 620C Memo- 
rywriter that we wanted to use in 
conjunction with our Kaypro to 
print out the manuscript of our 
book. Both programs' developers 
assured us that their particular 
program could be installed for the 
Memory writer. 

Alas, such was not the case. 
Apparently Kaypros and Memo- 
rywriters simply do not speak the 
same language. Support we re- 
ceived from the outfit that sold us 
the first program was minimal. We 
eventually gave up and wrote off 
another bad investment. 

However, the second program, 
PropStar by Civil Computing Cor- 
poration, was a different story. 
First, the president of that corpora- 
tion, Mr. Russ Greenlaw, put in 
many hours talking to Xerox and 
Diablo representatives to see if 
there was any way our Memo- 

26 Profiles 

rywriter could be made to work 
with PropStar. 

Since we were up against a pub- 
lishing deadline and couldn't use 
the program as it was, he offered to 
use his own Diablo printer to print 
out one or more rough drafts and, if 
necessary, the final draft of our 
manuscript at no additional charge 
to us. 

When it became apparent that 
there was no way our Memo- 
rywriter was going to be able to 
work with PropStar, and when his 
own work backed up to the point 
where he couldn't continue to do 
our printouts, he loaned us one of 
his own Diablo 620 printers to 
finish printing out the manuscript. 

Unfortunately, the printer had 
an electrical problem that caused it 
to overheat and shut down the first 
time we tried to use it. No prob- 
lem—Mr. Greenlaw personally 
flew in with a replacement and 
installed it right at our office. 

Throughout our association 
with Civil Computing, Mr. Green- 
law was always available by tele- 
phone to answer all of our endless 
questions and to try to talk us 
through procedures. 

I wanted to share our experience 
with your readers, since I'm sure 
many readers may have considered 
purchasing a proportional spacing 
program for their own use. We can- 
not say enough good things about 
PropStar, Civil Computing Corp., 
or especially Russ Greenlaw, who 
truly came to our rescue in our 
hour of despair. 

Lise A. Young 

Attorneys' Medical Reference 

Paradise, California ^K il 

All letters to the editor should be 
mailed to: 


Attn-.Letter to Editor 

533 Stevens Avenue 

Solana Beach, CA 92075. 

CPI User Comments 


I am extremely pleased with the program. 
The manual which accompanied it is com- 
plete and clearly written, and the program 
itself is a pleasure to work with. . . (TLF) 

I have personally been involved with data 
processing for the past ten years as head of 
operations for (company name). Never be- 
fore have I talked with any software support 
technician who was as polite, courteous, and 
intelligent and most of all, knowledgable of 
the system which was being discussed. . . I 
commend you, your software and most espe- 
cially your personnel. . . (HRH) 

. . .I have found your general ledger system 
to be far superior to any I had worked with 
previously. Your program makes my work so 
much easier and efficient that it is truely hard 
to explain. . . (PAW) 

We have sold several of your packages & find 
that the end user is always surprised and 
pleased with the value & software. . . 
(CS - Dealer) 

I wanted to express my appreciation for the 
simplicity and many hours of detail thoughts 
that went into your programs to make them 
understandable to the average layman. At 
this point you have one very satisfied custom- 
er. . .'(JC) 

I sincerely appreciate the super service. . . 

Your documentation and instructions are 
much clearer than with *. . .. (SDF) 

I have tried three different payroll programs 
but yours is by far the best. It is user friendly 
and has good documentation. . . (JAR) 


I am amazed at the quality of your program — 
especially at this price. Thank you. . . (PAW) 

I am well satisfied. . . (RC) 

This software has the best written support 
documentation I have seen in three years. . . 

Truely astounding program for the money. 
Super job, we need more software com- 
panies like you. . . (DWT) 

You have * backed off the map. . . (WFR) 

Installation was painless. . . (GAP) 

I really appreciate the sample data files and 
tutorial. . . (TRA) 


* indicates other supplier's systems. All letters on file, copies 
on request. 


Our software saves you money before it's installed 

Computer Professionals, Inc. has been developing computer applications for 
business and industry for NINETEEN years, often working behind the scenes 
for some of the biggest names in the industry. We have learned how to pack 
a lot of power into each computer program but we know that raw power and 
ability is worth little unless coupled with ease of use, good documentation and 
responsive support. CPI's Business Systems are all these things and more. 
They run faster, support larger capacities and cost less than any similar 
systems marketed today. They have been installed by thousands of users 
(since 1978) and are available from us directly or from your KAYPRO dealer. 
We specialize in KAYPRO systems. 

We know that floppy disk users don't appreciate shuffling four or five disks in 
and out per application. We know that no users like to abort in the middle of 
an application to change printer pitch. We know that users don't like copy 
protection and complex licensing agreements. We don't believe that any 
systems with these 'features' can be considered easy to use so we left them 
all out of CPI Business Systems. 

Fancy packaging and expensive type set manuals add greatly to the cost of 
most application packages but have little lasting value. Once your system/s 
are up and running for a week or so their real worth is their day-to-day 
productivity and responsiveness; the other materials gather dust. CPI Busi- 
ness Systems include comprehensive manuals, sample data files, tutorial 
sessions, etc.— everything you need is included. Our manuals are pre- 
pared and printed on computer systems. 

No system is perfect; CPI Business Systems are not exceptions. That's why 
users are entitled to support when they need it and that's why CPI continues 
to enhance each system regularly based on user's suggestions. 

Most users need a little support when getting started so we include 45 days of 
FREE support with each application. Others charge hundreds of dollars extra. 
Users of CPI Business Systems can extend support for a full year for less 
than ten cents per day per application. 

CP/M users may become MS-DOS users in the years ahead; CPI has 
planned ahead for this possibility and we provide data file conversion service 
to any user. CPI will, however, continue to support and enhance these fine 
systems for CP/M users for years to come. Your investments today will not be 
obsoleted by tomorrow's technology. 

These powerful systems are described briefly below. If you don 
yet ask for our 30+ page overview or try an application demo 
price (demo prices apply to future system orders). 

There are no extra charges for shipping, COD, etc. American 
Express, Mastercard, VISA card orders welcome. We ship in 
48 hours. Please tell us what format you want (II/2X/4/10716), 
etc. Demo systems in KAYPRO formats only. 




Phone: (803) 268-3911 



Personal/Company Checks OK 

t feel confident 
system at half 

□ □□□ 


$80.00 GENERAL LEDGER $100.00 


Comprehensive system with the most wanted features. Provides accurate and 
well organized financial information for your business. Check the partial fea- 
ture list below. Accepts data automatically from all other CPI Business Sys- 
tems for completely integrated accounting. The entire program library fits on 
one 191 K disk. Menu driven for ease of use but the menus won't get in your 

PROGRAM FUNCTIONS: Systems Initialization customizes programs for 
your business and hardware. Master File Maintenance to create, modify and 
report on charts of accounts; auto Make Departments function speeds setup; 
lists charts in 3 formats, on 8 1 / 2 " wide forms at 10 cpi. Transaction (Journal 
Entry) Maintenance to enter and change and delete and post and list (3 
formats); auto increment for reference from numeric pad; auto duplication of 
any field from prior entry, last 7 entries on display; source/run totals; validation 
of account numbers at time of entry; true prior period adjustments; repeating 
entries for depreciation, etc. Trial Balance summary reports (2), worksheets 
and detail general ledgers; Full/Consolidated/Selective departmental (FCS) 
processing. Financial Statements in 4 formats: current year, current and 
prior year, current quarterly, cumulative quarterly; FCS selection (see above); 
run any report for any prior period; indicate # of months for the current period 
even when re-running prior periods; disclaimers (two 78-char lines) for 
Accountants. Budget Reporting with remaining or variance computations; 
current, YTD, both; rerun prior periods; FCS processing, variable # months 
on current period. Full Year Detail G/L high speed build up system; over 
3,800 records on 191K disk; detail is shown on original input sequence by 
account; FCS; partial year reports when disk space is limited; auto buildup for 
hard disk users. End-Of-Period creates backup file automatically; updates 
repeating entry date fields for new month; selects month/year end processing 
automatically; updates prior year's data. Accounting Transfer inputs data 
from each CPI Business System; posts; prints control reports; multiple trans- 
fers from other applications allowed. Query Account - high speed displays to 
CRT or individual or range-of-account displays to printer. See the Hardware 
Requirements section also. All CPI systems include easy data entry and 
correction via formatted screens, Back-Up, Void & End keys. 

CAPACITIES: CP/M - 600 Accounts; MS-DOS - 2000 Accounts, 3-5 Digits for 
Account Numbers - Up to 99 departments using 3-digit account number and 
2-digit department number. Each K of disk can hold 8 records (i.e. 300+ 
accounts and 1200+ transactions on a 191 K disk.) 

$80.00 ACCOUNTS PAYABLE $100.00 


Improve your cash management with this fine system. You'll get the up to 
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on file. Payments and notes vouchered automatically insuring timely pay- 
ments. Complete check writing included. The system reports include Vendor 
File Lists, Open Vouchers, Ageing By Due Date, Discount Date Ageing, Cash 
Requirements, Check Registers, G/L Transaction List, Query Vendor Status, 
Credit Vouchers, Deleted Vouchers. 

CAPACITIES of 600 Vendors, (CP/M), 2000 Vendors (MS-DOS) - no limit on 



Super system with Invoices, Service Invoices, Statements, etc. A full range of 
reporting abilities include Customer Reports, Ageing Reports, Transactions 
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the virtues of ledger card history detail and the speeds of today's computers. 
Use preprinted forms and/or plain paper for invoices and statements 
CAPACITIES of 600 Customers (CP/M) 2000 (MS-DOS) - no limit on transac- 
tions, multiple customer disks OK. 

$80.00 PAYROLL $100.00 


A complete payroll system supplied with current tax routines for every state. 
Functions include Employee File Maintenance; Employee Lists in multiple 
levels of detail; Input Worksheets; Time Card Entry; Regular, Overtime, Other, 
Commissions, Tips, Misc. Pay, Exceptions Processing so you only enter 
variable data; Weekly, Bi-Weekly, Semi-Monthly, Monthly pay cycles (run 
individually/combined); Departmental Payrolls; Checks; Check Registers; 
Earnings Reports; 941s; W-2s; Unemployment Reports; Multi-State; Manual 
Checks; G/L Transactions. Federal, FICA, State and Local Taxes, Federal/ 
State Add-Ons, FICA, FUTA, SUI, SDI, EIC, 4 other deductions. 
CAPACITIES - 600/2000 emp. (CPM/MSDOS), 98 Tax File Reds. 


CP/M: 64K (53K TPA) & CP/M 2.0 or higher. 
MS-DOS: 128K (or more) & MS-DOS/PC-DOS 2.0 or higher - ANSI.SYS. 
Printer: 132 columns (compressed pitch supported), continuous forms. 
Disk/s: Dual Floppies/Hard Disk/Both - 191K recommended, less works. 
CRT: 80/24 with Clear, Home, Clear to EOL, Up, Down, Left, Right. 



Intermediate/ 8/ 16 

jC tutorial tAat iu 7 u&trate& &ur6<h& /touted cmd beauty 

by Edward Gelerinter 

Last Father's Day my kids gave me a copy of 
Turbo Pascal for my Kaypro II. After spend- 
ing some time with my nose in its manual, I 
was ready to write a few simple programs. 
As my skills increased, I found myself writ- 
ing more of my programs in Pascal and fewer in BASIC. I 
also found myself spending most of my free time prac- 
ticing my newly developed Pascal skills. After all, 
Pascal is a logical, structured, even elegant, language. 
To me, an elegant language is a pretty language. I have 
heard programmers refer to languages as being pretty, 
but I didn't really understand what they meant until I 
learned Pascal. 

In the eye of the beholder 

The best way to illustrate the simple elegance of Pascal 
is to present well-chosen programs that use some of the 
more powerful properties of the language. But first, let's 
review the major points about Pascal. (For more detail, 
see the review of Turbo Pascal in the July/August 
1 984 PROFILES.] 

Unlike BASIC, Pascal has a definite structure, which 
will be described in some detail as I present specific 
programs. This structure encourages good program- 
ming practices. It allows you to write the program in 
small, individual modules called "procedures" and 
"functions," which perform particular tasks. Usually, 
each module can be written and tested individually. 
Then the pieces can be put together to form a program. 

Once a program is written, Pascal produces an 
executable .COM file that is run simply by typing in the 
name of that file. This means you can give copies of 
your work to friends, who won't need anything else to 

28 Profiles 

run it. Pascal also requires you to declare all variables 
in advance. This discourages adding afterthoughts to 
the program. 

Typically, a compiled language like Pascal makes 
those who are used to working in a non-compiled 
language such as BASIC impatient. When you type an 
incorrect line in BASIC, often an error message pops up 
immediately. In a compiled language, the errors don't 
show up until you try to compile the program— then 
you get a bunch of them. Turbo provides a useful 
compromise. If an error is found, the compilation stops, 
and the error is noted. Even better, you are returned to 
the editor with the cursor pointing to the place where 
the error was detected. 

Turbo programs compile extremely fast. Your 
patience during the writing is rewarded with a pro- 
gram that takes much less time to execute than a 
corresponding BASIC program. 

The game plan 

Now on to the programs. I intend to present a Turbo 
Pascal program that will accept filenames from the 
keyboard, or read filenames from a disk file. The pro- 
gram will write out a concatenation (a linked series) of 
the contents of the files either to the printer or the disk. I 
will call this program WRITER. Of course, it must be 
relatively easy to create the file containing the group of 
filenames if WRITER is to be useful. Another Turbo 
program, GROUPER, is designed to do just this. As you 
will see, GROUPER is a short program that taps some of 
the powers of the CP/M operating system. Take a gander 
at Listing 1: Grouper. This is a moderately sophisti- 
cated program that demonstrates some of the power of 

Copyright © 1986 Edward Gelerinter. All rights reserved. 


PROGRAM grouper; 

VAR outtext; 

a, b, bb, counter; integer; 
llst:ARRAY[l.128] OF strlng[11]; 
BEGIN {procedure} 

FOR counter := 1 TO 128 DO listfcounter] := '+' ; 

bdos(S1A,$2080); {set DMA address} 
a:=Bdos($11, $5C); {search for first} 
WHILE fa<4) AND (bb<129) DO 
BEGIN {while} 

lFa = OTHENb: = $80; 
IFa = 1THENb:=SA0; 
IFa = 2THENb: = $C0; 
lFa = 3THENb;=SE0; 
FOR counters 1 TO 11 DO 


a:=Bdos (S12. S5C); {search for next} 
END; {while} 

wrltelnCName of output file, eg b;cat2daf); 
assignfput, flloufj; 

FOR counter := 1 TO bb-1 DO 

write(list[counter],' '); 
IF (counter MOD 5) = THEN writeln 
END; {for} 
END; {procedure} 

BEGIN {main} 


Listing 1 : A program that is called along with a filename in which wild cards 
are allowed. 'Grouper' will then write an output file containing the names 
of all the disk files whose names match the input filename. This program 
must be compiled starting at an address of $2100 or above as discussed 
in the text. The S symbol means hexadecimal in listing. 

Pascal. I hope it will also be useful to readers. 

Lets look at the general program structure before we 
attempt to look at the details. We start with the word 
PROGRAM, followed by the name of the program and a 
separator, the semicolon. Global variables would usu- 
ally be declared next, but GROUPER does not use any of 
these. Then come the procedures and functions that 
are subprograms and thus have the same general form. 
Each begins with the declaration PROCEDURE or 
FUNCTION, followed by the name and variables trans- 
ferred, if any. You might note that variables (VAR) are 
declared within the procedure. These are local vari- 
ables, meaning they are only valid within the pro- 
cedure. The action starts with a BEGIN. A subprogram 
always ends with END; (the semicolon is required). 

The main body of the program is deceivingly simple. 
It consists of a BEGIN, the name of the subprogram 
(CAT), and END. (the period is used at the end of the 
main body only). If you intend to use this program, type 
it into your Kaypro exactly as shown. The punctuation 
is extremely important; a misplaced comma or semi- 
colon will result in a program that will not compile. 

You may have noticed other things about the listing 
that are put there for the benefit of the human reader. 
Pascal has a series of words, called reserved words, that 
have specific, predefined meanings. These words can- 
not be used for any other purpose. I typed reserved 
words in upper case to make them more obvious. 

I also followed the common practice of selectively 
indenting in order to group corresponding parts of the 
program together. Groups of commands between 
BEGIN and END are indented so that the pairing is 
obvious. Finally, comments are contained between 
pairs of curly braces, ( and ], or between the (* and *) 
pairs. They are the counterparts of REMarks in BASIC 
and are ignored by the compiler. I have made an effort to 
include many comments in my listings. 

Grouper— it's not a fish 

GROUPER. PAS is a program that makes use of only one 
procedure, but this procedure uses some of the more 
advanced features of CP/M, so you should consult a 
book if you're not familiar with system calls, etc. I 
recommend Soul of CP/M, by Mitchell Waite and 
Robert Lafore. The novice will find the CP/M manual 
rough going, even though it contains all of the informa- 
tion required. 

The author of CP/M was kind to the users of the 
operating system. He provided a mechanism through 
which we can access some of the programs CP/M 
requires for its own use. We do this by supplying a 
function number (func) and an appropriate parameter 
(param), and then calling the program in machine code 
or assembler. This is known as a "BDOS system call." 
Often the system call returns a value that indicates the 
result of the operation. Turbo provides the statement 
BDOS(FUNC, PARAM), which can be used as a pro- 
cedure to invoke a BDOS call; or it can be used as a 
function to obtain the value returned by the BDOS 
call. Both of these features are very useful in the hands 
of an experienced programmer. 

Now let's look at the procedure CAT. First the VARi- 
ables and their types are declared. Integers and strings 
are very similar to their counterparts in BASIC, but in 
Pascal we need to declare the length of the string. The 
[11] indicates that the string variables "filout" and 
"name" can have up to 1 1 characters. We also reserve 
room for an array of strings, which we call "list." This 
array can hold 128 strings, each 11 characters in 
length or less. "Text" is a predefined type of file in 
Turbo. In our case it will turn out to be a type of disk file 
containing the names of other files, one to a line. 

After GROUPER is properly compiled, it is run by 
typing GROUPER filename, and "filename" can con- 
tain wildcards such as *.dat. The CP/M operating 
system then puts the filename into a reserved portion of 
the memory called the file control buffer (FCB). The 
procedure reserves a portion of memory called the DMA 
(direct memory access) for its own use, starting at 
address 2080h (h=hexadecimal). BDOS calls are used 

January 29 


to place filenames matching the FCB entry into the 
DMA. CP/M stores filenames in groups of four in its 
directory, and the BDOS call returns a number 
(0, 1,2,3) to indicate which of the four files matched the 
FCB contents. If no match occurs, a 255 (FFh) is 

The names of matching files are then copied into the 
array "list." The user is prompted for a filename, which 
is read in as the variable "filout" and assigned to the 
output file that will contain the list matching the input 
filename. The "rewrite" statement prepares the output 
file for writing and "list" is written both to the file and to 
the screen. The latter is done so that the user can see 
which filenames were actually stored in the output file. 

There is still one detail we need to take care of. We 
must be careful to insure that Turbo does not compile 
the GROUPER program into the region of the memory 
we reserved for the DMA, so we will direct Turbo to 
compile the program at an address above our DMA. To 
do this, proceed as follows: From the Turbo Pascal 
menu, type O to get the options menu and then C to 
compile an executable file to disk. Then type S to alter 
the starting address and answer the prompt with 2 1 00. 
Now you can type Q to return to the main menu and C to 
compile the program: If the code was typed correctly, a 
successful compile will take place. Type Q to exit Turbo. 
We now have executable code on the disk. 


Declare global variables 

Main program 

Initialize the array which holds the list of file names 
Call procedure 'loadlisf 

Loadlist procedure 

If input comes from files created by grouper' call 'file^jead' 
Read file names from disk file 
Write names in acceptable form 
Call procedure 'check' 

Elimindte non-ASCII files 
Load names of ASCII files into array 'list' 
If program accepts input from keyboard 

Read input and call check 
Eliminate non-ASCII files 

Load names of ASCII files Into array 'list' 

Write list of file names to screen 

Return to main program 

Main Procedure 

Query user if output is to go to printer or disk, 
If disk file Is chosen call Vritefile' 

Create output file 

Write contents of first file in array to output 

Write contents of next file in array to output 

Repeat for all files in the array 

Write output to screen concurrently 
If printer output is chosen call 'print' 

Write contents of first file in array to printer 

Repeat for all files In the array 

Write output to screen concurrently 
End of program. 

Figure 1: Pseudocode illustrating the logic for the program 'WRITER' 

The main attraction 

We are now ready to proceed with the main program, 
WRITER. PAS. The previous program, GROUPER. PAS, 
was fairly short, since we were able to take advantage of 
some of the powerful features of CP/M. WRITER is a 
somewhat longer program. A common method used to 
keep track of the logic is to write an outline of the 
program in English. This outline is called "pseu- 
docode" and it's used for organizing your ideas before 
actually trying to write the program. The abbreviated 
pseudocode for WRITER is shown in Figure 1 . If I were 
using this pseudocode as a blueprint for the program, 
Figure 1 would be considerably more detailed. But for 
our purposes, Figure 1 is detailed enough to demon- 
strate the logic of the program. 

There are a few things to note. A procedure can be 
called either from the main program or from any other 
procedure. When the procedure called is finished, the 
program returns to the calling point. A main program 
can call a procedure, which calls another procedure. 
This second procedure can call a third procedure. 
Computer people call this "nesting." When the third 
procedure is finished, the program returns to the call- 
ing point in the second procedure, and when the sec- 
ond procedure is finished, the program returns to the 
calling point in the first. (Got all that?) 

A second point is sort of obvious, but I've often gotten 
into programming trouble by ignoring the obvious. A 
procedure must be defined before it can be called! This 
dictates the order that must be used when writing your 

listing. If you are not careful in ordering the procedures, 
your efforts will be rewarded with a compiler error — not 
a pretty sight. 

Even though you can learn about the general logic of 
WRITER from Figure 1 , there are still some interesting 
details that require comment. The source code for 
WRITER is shown in Listing 2. Notice the definition of a 
CONSTant, N, which is the maximum number of files 
the program can handle. This allows you to change this 
maximum by changing only one number. The pseu- 
docode of Figure 1 tells you that files are checked to see 
if they are printable (ASCII). This is done in procedure 
"check" by using the "copy" command to extract the 
portion of the filename, "name," that corresponds to 
the file extension. This extension is checked against 
four non-ASCII types that I regularly use— COM, OVR, 
HEX and FIN. If you regularly use different non-ASCII 
extensions, then you will want to add those extensions 
to the list. 

There is some strange-looking code in the procedure 
"file— read." The FCB has 1 1 memory locations— eight 
for the filename and three for the extension. It does not 
store the separating period or the drive letter. The file 
containing this manuscript is stored in the FCB as 
WRITER MSS (there are two blank spaces between 
WRITER and MSS). This is the way GROUPER writes 
the filename to the file it creates. This is also the way 
the directory is printed when you type DIR. Try it. The 
procedure "file— read" first adds the drive letter and 
the period and removes the spaces, so that it looks like 

30 Profiles 


PROGRAM writer; 

CONST N = 100; {maximum number of files program can handle} 

TYPE sfr = string[14]; 

mat = ARRAY[1..N] OF string[14]; 

VAR filout,name:string[14]; 

inp,out:text; {predefined file type} 

PROCEDURE check[ name:str;VAR counteninteger); 
VAR j,k:integer; 
BEGIN {check} 

FOR k := 1 TO 14 DO name[k] := upcase(name[k]); 
J :=0; k:=1; {initialize flag and counter} 
WHILE (name[k] <> '.'] AND (k < 12) DO 
k := k + 1; {'.' cannot be at k>11} 
IFk< 12 THEN 
BEGIN {set flag if not text file} 

IFcopy(name. k+1,3) = COM' THEN j := 1; 
IFcopy(name, k + 1,3) = OVR' THENj := 1; 
IF copy(name, k+1,3) = 'HEX' THEN j ;= 1; 
IF copy(name, k+1,3) = 'FIN' THEN j := 1 
END; {if-then} 
IF j = 1 THEN {flag set} 

counter := counter - 1; 
END; {check} 

PROCEDURE file_read(VAR list:mat;VAR counteninteger); 
VAR c:char; 
BEGIN {procedure} 

name ;= ' '; {14 spaces} 

writeln('What is the name of the file? eg b:cat2daf); 


FOR K := 1 TO length[temp) DO 

name[k] := temp[k]; 

BEGIN {not eof} 

FOR k ;= 1 TO 8 DO 

name[k+2] ;= temp[k]; 
name[11] := ','; 
FORk:= 9 TO 11 DO 

name[k+3] := temp[k]; {get rid of spaces} 
k : = 1; c := name[k]; 
WHILE (c <> ")AND(K(11)DO 
BEGIN {while} 
c := namefk]; 
k:= k + 1 

FORj := 0TO3 DO name[j+k] := name[11+j]; 
FOR J := 14 DOWNTO 4+k DO name[j] := "; 
list[counter] := name; 
counter ;= counter +1; 
close(group) ; 

writelnCRead names from another file?'); 
writeln('yes = 1'); 

IF k = 1 then file read(list,counter); 


PROCEDURE loadlist( VAR list:mat); 
BEGIN {loadlist} 

ans := 0; 

writeln('lf you wish to Input from a disk file'); 

writeln('type 1. If you will from both disk and'); 

writelnfterminal input, start with disk input.'); 


IF ans = 1 THEN file„j"ead(list,counter); 

writeln('Enter filenames, one to a line. Do not'); 

writeln('exceed ',N: names. Last entry must be "+" '); 

WHILE (name[1] <> '+') AND (counter <N + 1) DO 
BEGIN {while} 

list[counter] ;= name; {filenames into array} 
counter —counter +1; 
IF counter < N + 1 THEN readln(name); 
END; {while} 
llst[counter] := '+'; 

i := counter- 1; {write out array of. names} 
FOR counter ;= 1 TO I DO writeln(list[counter]) 
END; {loadlist} 

PROCEDURE writefile( listimat ); 


BEGIN {writefile} 

wrlteln(Output filename?'); 

assign(outfilout); {call output file filout} 
rewrite(out); {create new file to accept output} 
counter: = 1; 
name := list[counter]; 

WHILE (name[1J <> '+') AND (counter <N + 1) DO . 
BEGIN {while} 

reset(inp); {open for processing} 
BEGIN {inner while} 

read(inp,a); {read from text file} 
write(a); {ouput to screen} 
write(out.a) {write to output file} 
END; {inner while} 
close(inp); {so we can assign a new name to inp} 
writeln; {start next file on a new line} 
counter := counter + 1; 
IF counter <,N + 1 THEN name := list[counter]; 
END; {writefile} 

PROCEDURE print( list:mat); 
BEGIN {print} 
counter: = 1; 
name := iist[counter]; 

WHILE (name[1] <> '+') AND (counter <N + 1) DO 
BEGIN {while} 


reset(inp); {open input file for processing} 
BEGIN {inner while} 

read(inp,a); {read character} 
write(a); {write to screen} 
write(lsta) {write to printer} 
END; {inner while} 

writeln; {start next file on a new page} 
counter := counter + 1; 
IF counter < N + 1 THEN name ;= listfcounter] 
END; {while} 
END; {read} 

1TONDOIist[counter]:= '+'; 

BEGIN {main} 
FOR counter : 
counter := 1; 
i;= 0;. 

WHILE (i <> 1) AND (i <> 2) DO 
BEGIN {while} 

writeln('Write to a file or a printer?'); 
writelnf.' 1 = file, 2 = printer'); 

END: {while} 
IF i = 1 THEN writefile(list); 
IF I = 2 THEN print(list); 
END. {main} 

Listing 2: 'WRITER; a program which will accept input from files created by grouper or input directly from the terminal. The input consists of file names 
whose contents are checked to insure that they are printable. Then they are concatenated and written to the printer or a disk file. 

January 31 


B:WRITER.MSS. This is the form you would use when 
typing a filename on the keyboard. The latter form of 
the filename is loaded into "list" and checked to make 
sure that it is an ASCII file. 

After the contents of all the files created by 
GROUPER are entered into "list," the program returns 
to "loadlist." We now have the option of entering addi- 
tional filenames from the keyboard. We let the com- 
puter know that we are finished entering filenames by 
typing a plus sign (+). The contents of the files, whose 
names appear in "list," are then sent to the printer or a 
to newly created disk file. If you make a mistake and 
type another choice, the program just asks again. Since 
it has no DMA or other special memory requirements, 
WRITER is compiled in the normal fashion. 

The beauty of the beast 

The programs GROUPER and WRITER were chosen to 
illustrate some of the power and beauty of Pascal. I have 
made no attempt to get into the nitty-gritty of the 
individual Pascal statements, nor have I attempted 
teach you how to program in Pascal. This would take a 
couple of hundred pages, and I seriously doubt the 
editors would allow me that much space. 

The example programs do illustrate the modular 
nature of Pascal, making it easier to follow the program 


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logic. I have a small library of procedures that I can add 
to these or any other Pascal programs. For instance, I 
can insert a procedure that prints a directory of the 
disks to the screen. Naturally, I will then also have to 
add two or three lines to the main program that will 
allow me to call this procedure. 

Pascal also has extremely powerful methods of 
defining variable types. You are limited only by your 
imagination. Just to whet your appetite, how about the 
ability to define a variable type "suit" that will have as 
its members spades, clubs, hearts and diamonds? 
Similarly, you could define the variable type "coins" 
that would have as its members quarters, dimes, nick- 
els and pennies. 

Putting it all to use 

I promised to provide you with some useful programs 
before I was finished, and I believe I have. Now, along 
comes my older son, the computer science major, who 
points out that we can use the CP/M utility PIP to 
concatenate files into a single file. Then we can use the 
TYPE command along with AP to write the file contents 
to the printer and screen simultaneously. The problem 
is that the PIP utility will not react correctly to wild- 
cards when concatenating files. 

Suppose you wrote a series of 20 articles and stored 
them using NAME.ART, where NAME represented the 
abbreviated name of the article. Now you wish to collect 
them into a single file. If you tried to do this with PIP 
youd need to type PIP B:ARTICLES.TXT= followed by 
20 filenames. Unfortunately, 20 filenames usually 
won't fit in the command line buffer CP/M gives you. 

With my programs you would start by typing 
GROUPER B:*.ART ( I'm assuming GROUPER is on 
disk A and the files are on disk B). Then answer 
B:NAMES.ART when queried by GROUPER for an 
output filename. Then type WRITER and choose "read 
from a disk file" when queried. When queried by 
WRITER for the name of the input file, answer 
B:NAMES.LST. You will need to indicate that you wish 
to write to a file when asked. The procedure "writefile" 
will then ask for an output filename, and you can 
answer B:ARTICLES.TXT. After WRITER is finished 
doing its thing, there will be a copy of a file on disk B 
that contains a concatenation of the 20 articles. It 
sounds complicated, but when you try it, you will find 
that is simple once you have compiled versions of 

Edward Gelerinter is a physics professor at Kent 
State University. He uses computers extensively at 
work, but this does not stop him from writing about 
computing as his hobby. 

32 Profiles 





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Similar tools with distinctly 
different identities 

by Drew Finnie 

well-known ad campaign errone- 
ously calls the microcomputer 
"a tool for modern times." It's not 
just a tool, it's an entire toolbox, 
containing dozens of devices for 
fixing the problems of modern times. And 
like the master mechanic who has a chief 
assistant to get all the right tools and parts 
for the job, a computer user has an operat- 
ing system to handle those tedious details. 
All the user, or mechanic, has to do is apply 
the proper tool to the problem. 

CP/M and MS-DOS are the two chief assis- 
tants in microcomputing operations. How- 
ever, although they both do the same job, 
they do not do it in the same way. They share 

Copyright © 1986 Drew Finnie. All rights reserved. 

January 35 

ancestry, but each has a unique personality. To better 
understand one, it helps to know about the other. 

This article will detail the ways in which MS-DOS is 
similar to and different from CP/M. After we give you a 
brief history of these operating systems, we'll explain 
some of the major differences between them and the 
reasons for those differences. Finally we'll tell you what 
MS-DOS can do that CP/M can't. 

(This article is intended as an introduction to MS- 
DOS, but for more detail on the basics of its use, see 
"Beginner's Luck" in this issue. — Ed.) 

Roots in CP/M 

To understand why MS-DOS resembles CP/M so much, 
you need to know how they both came into being. 

It may be hard to believe, but CP/M is only 1 1 years 
old. Written in 1974-75 by Digital Research founder Dr. 
Gary Kildall, CP/M was the first generic microcom- 
puter operating system. It was a giant step forward for 
personal computing. Before its birth, you really did 
have to be a programmer to be able to compute, 
because there was a different operating system for each 
brand of computer and they frequently required some 

By the end of the decade, almost every 8-bit com- 
puter used CP/M as its primary operating system. Even 
for the Apple, which uses Apple-DOS, CP/M is widely 
employed as a secondary operating system by means of 
a co-processor board— it's estimated that 30 percent 
(over a million) of all Apples are outfitted this way. 

In 1979, the second generation of microprocessor 
was created. Intel announced it was ready to market a 
new family of CPU chips, the 16-bit 8086 and 8088. A 
year later, a company called Seattle Computer Prod- 
ucts began selling boards using the new chips and 
started to search for a new operating system to run 

QDOS— "Quick and Dirty 

Operating System" — 

was modeled on CP/M 

for the 8086 chip. 

them. Since CP/M was the dominant program in the 8- 
bit world, Seattle Computer asked Digital Research to 
write a 16-bit version that would be known as CP/M-86. 

Had Digital Research delivered CP/M-86 on sched- 
ule, MS-DOS might never have seen the light of day. 
But, as happens in the computer industry, problems 
cropped up. DRI missed several deadlines and Seattle 
Computer finally decided it couldn't wait and wrote its 
own operating system. 

The result, written by SCP programmer Tim Patter- 
son, was called QDOS for Quick and Dirty Operating 
System. Because of CP/M's popularity, Patterson mod- 
eled QDOS after it. He wanted his program to take 

36 Profiles 

advantage of the 8086 's more advanced capabilities 
while still allowing programmers to transfer their work 
from 8- to 16-bit systems with as little difficulty as 

Partly because Patterson had a ready-made blue- 
print in CP/M, the first version of QDOS was completed 
in just a few months. It was tested during the summer 
of 1980, enhanced, and commercially released in the 
fall as 86-DOS. Meanwhile, Digital Research's CP/M-86 
was finally issued in late 1980. 

Six months later, Microsoft Corporation bought 86- 
DOS from Seattle Computer and renamed it MS-DOS. 
In August 1981, IBM announced its new Personal 
Computer would use a proprietary version of MS-DOS 
rather than CP/M-86, and the rest, as they say, is 

The similarities 

Because of its background, MS-DOS is really a cousin of 
CP/M . Ifs a lot like the relationship between French and 
Spanish: Both operating systems share the same 
heritage; if you know one, it's easier to learn the other. 

Program Organization. The similarities begin with 
the programs' organization. CP/M is divided into three 
parts: the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System), BDOS 
(Basic Disk Operating System), and CCP (Console 
Command Processor). Similarly, MS-DOS has an 
input/output module called IO.SYS, a disk operating 
system known as MS-DOS.SYS, and a command inter- 
preter called COMMAND.COM. Also following the CP/M 
model, all three parts are stored on disk and loaded 
sequentially during the power-up sequence. 

To save RAM space, MS-DOS incorporates CP/M's 
idea of dividing system commands into two types. 
Frequently used commands (like copying files or dis- 
playing directories) are an integral part of the inter- 
preter and are known as "internal" commands. These 
are loaded directly into RAM at bootup and can be used 
immediately when you see the system prompt. 

Less frequently used commands, known as "exter- 
nal commands," are available as files on the system 
disk where they don't take up precious RAM space. 
These must be present on the disk you are using to be 

System Functions. In addition, many MS-DOS func- 
tions are either the same as those in CP/M or only 
slightly modified. Such familiar commands as DIR, 
TYPE and REN have been carried over under the same 
names. Others, like SYSGEN and PIR are available 
under other names (SYS and COPY) but do essentially 
the same things. Even the MS-DOS system prompt, 
A>, will be recognized by millions of CP/M users. 

The differences 

Despite the similarities, MS-DOS is not merely a 16-bit 
copy of CP/M. The Microsoft team that modified the 
original 86-DOS program wanted to incorporate the 
best aspects of CP/M, and then add some improve- 


ments. The result was a program retaining the power 
and flexibility of CP/M while providing users with a 
more "friendly" interface. 

MS-DOS is not merely 

a 1 6-bit copy of CP/M, 

Microsoft wanted to 

add improvements. 

The desire to give MS-DOS a logical user interface 
was the major concern. CP/M, for all its power, is often 
criticized for its lack of "user-friendly" commands and 
terminology. Microsoft wanted to make sure users 
would be able to easily understand how to manipulate 
the new operating system. They accomplished this by 
using mnemonic terminology and making command 
syntax more logical. 

Mnemonic Terms. In CP/M, if you want to copy a file 
you use the PIP command. Why give a file copying 
command such an obscure name? The answer lies in 
CP/M's background. CP/M is descended from various 
operating systems developed during the sixties. 
Because of this, the program was written with interface 
terminology only a computer programmer could love. 
PIP stands for "Peripheral Interchange Program" and 
means, in computer lingo, a program to copy files from 

one location to another. Other terms include "TTY," 
which designates the computer's serial port (used for 
telecommunications) and "LST" which names the par- 
allel printer port. There are even references to a paper 
tape reader (RDR) and a card punch (PUN), which were 
used in the sixties but have long since faded into 

Microsoft felt these were major shortcomings in an 
otherwise powerful program and was determined to 
correct the problem in MS-DOS. Thus, a new user 
interface was written that uses mnemonic command 
names and terms. Instead of PIP, there is the "COPY" 
command; instead of TTY, it's "COM" (communica- 
tions); and "LPT" (line printer) replaces the older LST. 
In most cases MS-DOS commands and terminology are 
much easier to remember because they are based on 
common sense. 

Command Syntax. The next major difference is in 
command syntax — the way a command is phrased. In 
CP/M, the syntax seems backward. Using PIP as an 
example, the order goes like this: PIP B:mom. 
doc=A:mom.doc. Translated into English, this says, 
"Copy to the B drive the file mom.doc/rom the A drive's 
file mom.doc." Or briefly "To destination drive and 
filename from source drive and filename." The equals 
sign is read as "from." 

MS-DOS reverses the syntax so that it correlates 
more closely with how humans order their thoughts. 
The same example above would look like this in MS- 
DOS: COPY A:mom.doc B:mom.doc. In English it 

January 37 

reads almost exactly the same: "Copy the A drive's file 
mom. doc to a B drive file of the same name." There is no 
cryptic equals sign, and the order is straightforward 
and unconfusing. 

Error Handling. In addition to command names and 
command syntax, another difference between the two 
operating systems is how they handle errors. If you're a 

MS-DOS handles errors 

in a much more 

forgiving way, Most 

mistakes aren't fatal 

CP/M user, how many times have you seen the "BDOS 
ERR on A: READ ONLY" message on your screen? This 
is a familiar error message if you've forgotten to log in a 
new diskette. The end result is that you may lose any 
work you've already done and a reboot is necessary. 

MS-DOS handles errors in a much more forgiving 
way. Most of the time, mistakes aren't fatal. When you 
do make a mistake, MS-DOS will display an error 
message with the additional line "Abort, Retry, 
Ignore?" Just type the first letter of the option you 
want. If you decide to abort, the worst that can happen 
is that you'll be sent back to the system prompt. 

Sometimes, the error is correctable. All you have to 
do is make the change and then type R. MS-DOS will 
try to run the command again with the change. For 
example, if you tried to copy a file from drive B to drive A 
and had forgotten to put the disk with the desired file 
into drive B, you would get an error message like this: 
"Read fault error; Reading Drive B 
Abort, Ignore, Retry:" 
You would simply stick the right disk in drive B and 
press R, and the command would execute correctly. 

The improvements 

There are, naturally, some things that MS-DOS can do 
that CP/M can't, simply because MS-DOS and its part- 
ner, the 8086 family of microprocessors, are tech- 
nically more advanced. The first of these capabilities is 
getting a lot of attention these days and has to do with 
the quantity of RAM available for MS-DOS's use. 

Resident Programs. Since MS-DOS usually has at 
least 256K of RAM to work with, memory-resident 
programs become more feasible. These are programs 
like SideKick or key definition packages that load into 
memory and then use MS-DOS's "terminate but stay 
resident" function. This lets MS-DOS keep the loaded 
program in memory, ready to be called into action, 
while running other programs at the same time. When 
a special sequence of keystrokes is entered, control 
passes to the resident program, which does whatever it 
has to do and then returns control back to the program 
that was interrupted. 

38 Profiles 

Communicating with Peripherals. The other thing 
that MS-DOS can do much better than CP/M is talk to 
peripherals— devices added on to the main system. 
(The most common, of course, are printers and mod- 
ems, but there are also plotters and mass storage 
devices such as RAM disks and hard disks, and more 
are being created all the time.) MS-DOS allows you to 
write a program in assembly language called a "device 
driver." This contains precise instructions to the com- 
puter on how to connect to and control the peripheral in 
question. You add this device driver to your basic 
operating system through the CONFIG.SYS file, a file 
that tells MS-DOS what changes have been made to the 
standard operating system. 

CP/M does not allow itself to be modified in this 
manner. In order to change the way it talks to 
peripherals, you must go into the guts of CP/M itself 
and change the BIOS— not an easy task even for 

Time and Date. Another nifty feature of MS-DOS 
that's an improvement over CP/M are the time and date 
functions. Whenever you start up or reboot an MS-DOS 
machine, it will first ask you for the time and then the 
date. You can ignore these if you wish by just pressing 
RETURN twice; the date and time will stay the same as 
when they were last set. 

But this is ignoring a valuable timesaver. MS-DOS 
automatically logs the date and time when you create 
or edit files. If you make a habit of entering the new 
information, every file will be tagged with the date and 
time it was created or edited. By using the MS-DOS 

Some MS-DOS features 

were borrowedfrom UNIX, 

a popular mainframe 

operating sy stern. 

command BACKUP, with the choices /M, /D, or /T, you 
can make backup copies of only those files that have 
been modified (/M), those that have been changed since 
a certain date (/D), those changed since a certain time 
(IT), or a combination of these. 

(You can also record the time and date on entire disks 
by using the /V switch when formatting them— very 
helpful when trying to keep track of many disks.) 

UNIX-like Features. Some other features of MS-DOS 
were borrowed from UNIX, one of the most popular 
mainframe operating systems. These features are I/O 
(input/output) redirection and pipes. 

I/O redirection is the ability to take output intended 
for one device, such as a printer, and send it to the 
screen or a disk file instead. Let's say that you wanted a 
disk file that contained a listing of all the programs on a 
particular drive. Now, the DIR command gives you a 
nice list of your programs, but it sends its output to the 

screen instead of a disk file. By typing the command 
DIRA: >FILES.LST, DOS will write the output of DIR 
to the file FILES.LST instead of the screen. The greater- 
than symbol redirects output; a less-than symbol 
redirects input. 

A "pipe" performs some specific operation on the 
output of a program before sending it to the intended 
destination. Let's assume that you still want a disk file 
listing the files on a specific disk. But this time you 
want the files to be sorted in alphabetical order. To do 
this you would type DIR I SORT > FILES.LST. The 
vertical bar "I" is a signal to DOS that whatever follows 
it is the name of a pipe. In this case we used the SORT 
pipe to alphabetically sort the output from the DIR 
command before writing it to the file FILES.LST. 

Another popular pipe is MORE. This particular pipe 
is usually used with the TYPE command to pause 
screen output after each 23 lines. (It's a lot easier than 
trying to type as before the output scrolls off the top of 
your screen.) Check your MS-DOS User's Guide for a 
listing of all the available pipes in your version of DOS. 

Now you can see that, instead of starting from scratch, 
the authors of MS-DOS borrowed liberally from CP/M 
and then improved on it. After all, DOS has more 

memory with which to work and is based on a more 
sophisticated microprocessor than its 8-bit counter- 
part. You give programmers that much more power and 
they'll run with it. 

And yet, even after five years of improvements, MS- 
DOS still bears a striking resemblance to CP/M. That 
fact was not lost on CP/M author Kildall. In an interview 
published in the July 1985 issue of Personal Comput- 
ing, the head of Digital Research said, "When I looked 
at the function calls of the first version of MS-DOS, I was 
astounded. The only differences [from CP/M] were 
errors in interpretation." The old adage holds true: 
There are few new ideas, but many variations on 
themes. ^W J 

Drew Finnie is assistant director of sports commu- 
nications at the University of Maine at Orono, where 
he uses a Kaypro 16 to write media guides and 
releases. He is a co-founder of the Bangor Area 
Kaypro Users Partnership and co-sysop of the Black 
Bears Den RBBS. Anyone with questions about MS- 
DOS can contact Finnie via the RBBS at (207) 
827-7517 between 8 p.m. and8a.m. EST (300/1200). 



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42 Profiles 


Intermediate/ 8 

Installing this powerful booster 


by Ted Silveira 

Last month I gave you a glimpse of what the Z- 
System can do; the next step is to get it 
installed on your Kaypro. People will tell you 
that this job is for experts, and in the past, it 
was pretty much true. To install ZCPR3— 
the core of the Z-System— you had to know enough 
about assembly language and operating systems to 
modify CP/M itself. 

There are easier ways, however. Though the "man- 
ual" installation is still the most flexible, you can now 
choose one of two easier routes — the automatic 
installation available commercially or one of the pre- 
fabricated installations available from the public 
domain. Before I talk specifically about these methods, 
let's take a general look at what happens when you 
install ZCPR3. 

What's goin' on 

When ZCPR3 is installed, it replaces the part of CP/M 
known as the console command processor (CCP). 
ZCPR3 also requires some space outside the CCP area 
for the buffers, resident command packages, and other 
options I covered last month. This extra space is cre- 
ated by relocating the CP/M operating system. 

Figure 1 (on page 44) is a simple block diagram of 
your computer's 64K RAM (random access memory), 

showing the layout of a standard Kaypro CP/M system. 
Aside from a reserved block (256 bytes) at the very 
bottom, CP/M lives in the uppermost section of your 
computer's RAM, occupying about 8K. The space in 
between the reserved block at the bottom and CP/M at 
the top is the transient program area (TPA) , the space in 
which programs like dBASE II and WordStar run. 

CP/M itself has three parts. The CCP interprets 
commands entered at the keyboard and contains built- 
in commands like DIR and TYPE. The BDOS (basic 
disk operating system) handles general duties — read- 
ing and writing to disks, sending characters to the 
screen, and creating and erasing files. The BIOS (basic 
input/output system) handles the nitty-gritty details of 
working with the Kaypro hardware. 

In Figure 2 (also on page 44) a block diagram of a 
computer's RAM with ZCPR3 installed, you can see two 
differences. First, ZCPR3 has replaced the standard 
CP/M CCP Second, the whole operating system has 
been moved lower to make room for the ZCPR3 buffers 
and command packages at the top. Because the operat- 
ing system has been lowered, the TPA is now smaller, by 
anywhere from IK to 6K or more. 

Automatic Installation 

Echelon, Inc., the distributor of the commercial Z- 

Copyright © 1986 Ted Silveira. All rights reserved. 

January 43 


System, offers two automatic installation packages, 
created by Joseph Wright. The Z3-Dot-Com package 
automatically installs ZCPR3 on your system, while Z- 
Com installs both ZCPR3 and ZRDOS (a replacement 
for CP/M's BDOS, described last month). Both packages 
are available with or without the ZCPR3 utilities. 

• Installing Z-Com— The actual process of installing 
Z-Com (or Z3-Dot-Com) could hardly be simpler, unless 
Echelon sent someone out to your house. To install Z- 
Com, for example, first you copy the files from the two 
master disks— they'll all fit on one disk if you have a 
Kaypro 4, 2X, or 10. 

FIGURE 1 (approximate only) 

basic input/output system 

basic disk operating system operating 

console command 

transient program area 
(about 56K) 

Second, with this new working disk in drive A, you 
run a SUBMIT file by entering SUB ZCCOM at the A> 
prompt. For the next two minutes or so, your computer 
whirrs away, loading data files, creating four files 
(ZCCOM, ZCX.COM, ZC.CP, and ZC.ENV) for your new 
system, and installing whatever ZCPR3 utilities are 
also on the working disk. 

Third, as the SUBMIT file ends its run, it boots up the 
new Z-System and runs a program called TCSELECT 
that asks you to select your terminal type. Kaypro 
owners must choose between "Kaypro II" and "Kaypro 
10." Choose "Kaypro II" if you have an '83 series 
Kaypro (those without half-intensity or reverse video). 
Choose "Kaypro 10" if you have an '84 series or other 
model Kaypro {with half-intensity and reverse video). 
Once you've selected the terminal type, TCSELECT 
creates the file MYTERM.Z3T 

The SUBMIT file then passes control to your new Z- 
System. Total time for installation is three to five 
minutes, depending on how many utilities have to be 

For ease of use, you should set every program disk to 
automatically run the newly-created ZG.COM when- 
ever you cold boot (start up or reset) your computer. 
ZCCOM contains your new operating system and loads 
it into memory. On every program disk, you'll also need 

ZC.CP, which contains the new CCP that's loaded on a 
warm boot, as well as ZC.ENV and MYTERM.Z3T, 
which contain descriptions of the system configuration 
and terminal characteristics. 

• Features— Z-Com gives you a full Z-System. You 
get search paths, a multiple command line buffer, and 
named directories. You get a 2K resident command 
package (RCP) that includes CP (copy), LIST, PEEK, 
and POKE. You get a 0.5K flow command package 
(FCP) that includes IF, ELSE, IF EXIST, and IF ERROR. 
And you get 1 . 5K allocated for an input/output package 
(IOP), if you choose to buy or create one. 

FIGURE 2 (approximate only) 






space for ZCPR3 buffers, RCPs, FCPs, etc. 

basic input/output system 

basic disk operating system 
or ZRDOS replacement 

ZCPR3 replacement for standard CCP 

transient program area 
(typically about 51 K) 

You also get ZCX.COM. This program removes the Z- 
System and returns you to standard CP/M— useful if 
you discover any programs that won't run under this Z- 
System. You can reload the Z-System by running 

This full-featured Z-System uses 5.5K of memory, 
reducing the usual Kaypro TPA from about 56K to 
about 50. 5K, still plenty for most programs. 

• Drawbacks— There are three main drawbacks to 
this automatic installation. First, you have to buy it. 
The price is reasonable, but if you can get ZCPR3 for 
free through a local users' group or bulletin board, you 
may think twice. On the other hand, if you have to pay 
for the users' group disks or make toll calls to reach a 
bulletin board, the final cost may not be much less than 
an automatic installation package. 

Second, you have to allot space on your disks for the 
files generated by the installation process, especially 
ZCCOM (12K) and ZC.CP (2K). These programs aren't 
needed with other methods of installing ZCPR3, in 
which ZCPR3 and its buffers are made part of the CP/M 
system image found on the system track of your disks. 

Third, you can't alter the size of this Z-System 
installation. That is, you can't make a larger or smaller 
system, as you can with a manual installation, so 
you're stuck with the 50-5 IK TPA. You can still alter the 

44 Profiles 

commands contained in the FCR RCP, and IOP by 
creating a new package and loading it each time the 
system is started up. 

• Modifying the Installation— I found that you can 
substitute your own RCP, FCP, and so forth for those 
normally contained in ZC.COM. Using the ZCPR3 
source files (and a macro assembler), create a new 
package to fit in the space already alloted and then 
patch this new package into ZC.COM with DDT. After 
that, ZC.COM will load your new packages instead of its 
standard ones. 

Semi-automatic installations 

Through the public domain, you can get several ZCPR3 
installation "kits" for various Kaypro models. These 
kits contain prefabricated ZCPR3 installations in 
which the hard work has already been done. Though 
some kits require more technical knowledge than Ech- 
elon's automatic installation, they're all within the 
range of the average user and much easier than the 
manual installation. 

• Installing a Kit— These semi-automatic installa- 
tion kits include several files. They contain directions 
for installing the kit, the source code for important 
parts of ZCPR3 (modified for the Kaypro), ready-to-run 
versions of the RCP and FCP and a few important 
ZCPR3 utilities (you're expected to acquire the rest on 
your own). And, of course, they include ZCPR3 itself, 
either in a modified SYSGEN program or in some HEX 
files (files with the filetype .HEX) to be patched into 
your system. 

If a kit comes with an already modified SYSGEN, 
installation is simple. Place a copy of the ZCPR3- 
modified SYSGEN (along with the other kit files) in 
drive A and run it, following the directions to write the 

The "kits" are all 

much easier than 

manual installation. 

ZCPR3 system onto the disk in A. Then cold boot your 
Kaypro, and you're running ZCPR3. Install whatever 
ZCPR3 utilities you have, and write your new ZCPR3 
system onto your other working disks. 

If a kit comes with just HEX patch files, you must 
install the patches yourself, using DDT to create a 
modified SYSGEN (all the kits I've seen contain step- 
by-step instructions). Then use the modified SYSGEN 
to write the ZCPR3 system onto your disks and proceed 
as above. 

• Features— I don't know how many prefab kits are 
available from the public domain, but here's a quick 
review of three common ones. All three use search 
paths, multiple command lines, and the standard 

• K83ZCPR3 : This kit, put together by Steven Cohen 


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January 45 

and Richard Jacobson (can be found on the Lillipute Z- 
Node BBS, 312/649-1730), is for early Kaypro II's and 
IV's (the '83 series, without graphics). It is easy to 
install (using SYSGEN) and requires no patching. 

This kit doesn't have space for an IOP but includes 
three alternate FCPs and two alternate RCPs. The GET, 
GO, and POKE commands are available, so you can use 
the "poke & go" trick I described last month. And the 
CP (copy) and PEEK commands are also available. 

This installation doesn't have the built-in com- 
mands DIR, ERA, REN, and TYPE in the CCP. One RCP 
contains DIR, ERA, and REN commands, while the 
other contains ERA, REN, and TYPE, so you'll have to 
use a transient program for either your DIR or TYPE 
command. Since you probably already have D.COM, 
you can easily dispense with DIR. 

• KP484Z3: This kit, by John Smith of Manlius, New 
York, is for the '84 series Kaypro 4 (with clock and 
internal modem). It, too, is easy to install because it 
comes with an already modified SYSGEN. KP484Z3 
and K83ZCPR3 use the same system configuration, 
very handy if you happen to have both an old and a new 

This kit offers only one RCP and one FCP. The FCP 
includes all the important flow commands, and the 
RCP includes the CP and PEEK commands, among 
others. Unfortunately, the GET and POKE commands 
are missing. 

The RCP also has some custom commands added by 
John Smith. OKI10 sets an Okidata 92 printer to 10 
characters per inch (cpi), while OKI 12 sets it to 12 cpi. 
GRAF toggles a filter to remove or restore graphics 
characters, and TIME displays the current time. 

• BIOSMMR: This kit by Michael Rubenstein, for the 
Kaypro 10 only, isn't just an installation of ZCPR3— it's 
a new BIOS that adds many features, including an 
extra megabyte of space on the hard disk, redirection of 
screen output to a disk file, a graphics filter, fast resets, 
and more. 

Briefly, the BIOSMMR package contains 14 HEX files 
(and the source files), each with a different selection of 
BIOS features. Twelve of these give a fully-loaded 
installation with a 50K TPA; two give a minimal 
installation with a 55K TPA. BIOSMMR also contains 
two other HEX files, one installing ZCPR3 for the 50K 
system and one for the 55K system. The 55K installa- 
tion is minimal, supporting only the ERA and SAVE 
commands. The 50K installation supports the GO, 
GET, and SAVE commands, as well as an RCP and an 
FCP. The missing built-in commands can be replaced 
with transient programs (XDIR.COM or D.COM replac- 
ing DIR, for example). These programs load so quickly 
from the hard disk that the time loss is small. 

You must patch these HEX files into the Kaypro 10's 
PUTSYS by using the public domain program MLOAD 
and Rubenstein's own BINSTALL program. If MLOAD 
isn't included with the BIOSMMR kit, get it from the 
same public domain source. 

While the ZCPR3 installation isn't quite what I'd 
have chosen for myself, the BIOS features make it a 
remarkable package. 

• Drawbacks— One drawback to all of the kits is that 
you get someone else's choice of features and system 
size. Whether this problem is serious depends on your 
desires. I'd hate to lose the GET, POKE, and GO com- 
mands, but other people might not care. 

One drawback to kits 

is you get someone 

else's choice of fea- 
tures and system size. 

A second problem for some kits is that you have to 
apply patches using DDT. The directions are simple, 
but the installation isn't as automatic as Echelon's Z- 
Com. This problem doesn't occur with kits like 
KP484Z3, which only require you to SYSGEN a disk. 

A third possible problem is that once you've installed 
a kit, you can only get back to standard CP/M by cold 
booting a standard CP/M disk. You have no utility that 
will quickly remove ZCPR3, as ZCX does in the auto- 
matic installation. Still, few people should ever need to 
do that. 

Finally, a particular kit may not work on your Kaypro 
if you have an incompatible ROM or BIOS version, 
especially if the kit uses HEX patches. There are, for 
example, two versions of Kaypro's CP/M 2.2G, each 
starting at a different memory address. A patch written 
for one version won't run on the other without 

• Modifying the Installation— As with the auto- 
matic installation package, you can always put 
together a new RCP or FCP for one of these installa- 
tions — if the particular installation allots space for 
these packages, and if you have a macro assembler. 

If you do have a macro assembler, you can also take a 
kit that includes the source code, modify the installa- 
tion to fit your own desires, and then reassemble it. 
This way, you get a custom installation without having 
to start from scratch. 

Manual installation 

In a manual installation, you start with the ZCPR3 
source files and build a system of exactly the size and 
configuration you want. Such an installation requires 
that you have a macro assembler and that you know 
something about assembly language and about your 
computer's BIOS. You don't have to be a pro, but you 
won't get it done in an afternoon, either. 

• Installing ZCPR3from Scratch— I can't trace each 
step for you here (not enough space and too many 
different Kaypros) , but in an outline, here's what you do. 

First, collect the ZCPR3 source files and the installa- 

46 Profiles 

tion documentation. Read it thoroughly before you 

Second, decide what features you want— there's not 
room enough for everything. You should at least include 
what ZCPR3's author, Richard Conn, calls the "stan- 
dard overhead," which includes search paths, multiple 
command lines, and the various ZCPR3 buffers. These 
things make ZCPR3 what it is. 

Third, figure out how much space the features you've 
selected take up so you'll know how much space to allot 
for the RCP, FCP, and IOP (assuming you use them). The 
only reliable way to figure this out is to do a trial 
assembly of the various pieces. You'll undoubtedly 
discover that everything you want won't fit or that the 
cost in space is too great. So adjust and try again. 

Obviously, the second and third steps are a cut-and- 
fit cycle you may have to repeat many times. You can 
save time by examining some of the semi-automatic 
installation kits to get an idea of how much space 
things take. 

Fourth, create space in your Kaypro's RAM for 
ZCPR3 by using the CP/M utility MOVCPM to move 
your CP/M system (CCP, BDOS, and .BIOS) lower in 
memory. By moving CP/M lower, you create empty 
space at the top of the memory that you can use for the 
RCP, FCP, IOP and buffers. (Kaypro 10 owners don't get 
MOVCPM and must use the alternate method described 
in their documentation.) 

(Note: While using MOVCPM on a Kaypro 4-84, I 
discovered an odd "feature." I created a 60K system, 
but when I ran it, it signed on claiming to be the 
standard 63K system. I thought at first that MOVCPM 
had failed. But when I checked, I found I did indeed 
have a 60K system— only the sign-on message was 

Fifth, add a routine to your computer's BIOS to set all 
the ZCPR3 buffers to the proper values on a cold boot. 
The ZCPR3 installation instructions show a sample 
routine, but implementing it on a Kaypro is up to you. 

Sixth, assemble your ZCPR3 package into one or 
more HEX files and, having captured a SYSGEN image 
of your new smaller CP/M system, patch in the HEX 
files using DDT Now you have a modified SYSGEN, 
containing ZCPR3, that you can use to make ZCPR3 
disks. If you're going to use ZRDOS or ZRDOS Plus, 
you'll patch it in at this point also. 

Seventh, after testing your new system, use the 
ZCPR3 installation program, Z3INS, to install what- 
ever ZCPR3 utilities you have. 

• Drawbacks-The drawbacks of this method of 

installation are obvious. It takes time and technical 

knowledge, though you can save both time and grief by 

studying the installation kits and borrowing from 

them. The payoff for your effort is a custom system that 

has exactly the features you want. 

(continued on page 60) 



Old mailing systems are cumbersome, expensive, and obsolete. With 
your computer and the new, professional E-Z MAIL PROGRAM, you 

will have an easy and inexpensive way to reach your clients. With 
professionally managed, personalized mailings, you can 

•open new doors -attract new clients 

•keep clients coming back »save money maintaining mailing lists 

The E-Z MAIL PROGRAM needs NO programming, has NO mystery 

numbers, NO commands to memorize. At the touch of a button, the E-Z MAIL PROGRAM 


Old mailing list systems are cumbersome, expensive, and obsolete. 
With E-Z MAIL, you simply 


Ask for E-Z MAIL at your local computer store, or ORDER DIRECT by sending 
54995 to our office. (Add 6% tax for California residents; shipping is free). Phone 
orders (MC/VISAJ accepted. 

E-Z MAIL runs on Kaypro and most other CP/M computers; SPECIFY WHICH SYSTEM you have. 



Practical Business Software 3377 Solano Ave., Suite #307 Napa, CA 94558 (707) 253-8432 

January 47 

In support of this month's editorial theme, Advent is offering the following specials: 

Electronic RAM Disk: High speed internal RAM Disk for all Kaypro models. 
Expandable to 1Mb in 256K increments, then add the 1Mb expansion board for 
a full 2MB RAM Disk. This RAM Disk delivers more performance than the 
competition. Add hard disks or Real Time Clock later and save. 
512K RAM Disk $459^85' .... $399.95 

5 MHz TurboBoard: Our tried and true 5 MHz speed enhancement for the 

earlier Kaypro models. 

5 MHz TurboBoard for Kaypro II & 4 $7^95 $64.95 

Chocholate Diskette: the ideal gift for all computer owners who love 
chocolate! This diskette is 4.8 ounces of delicious milk chocolate in the shape of 
a 5 1/4" diskette. It comes in a real vinyl case that will hold 3 real diskettes. 

Chocolate Diskette $9.95 

Infocom Games: Become part of another world or another time. Challenge 
your mind with a story that never stops changing, and whose plot turns and 
twists before your eyes. You become the main character in a interactive story 
that can continue for weeks or months before you find the ultimate solution. 
Infocom Games (CP/M) 10% Discount 


File Transfer Service: Advent provides a service beyond the ability of any format 

conversion software! We can transfer files between MS-DOS/PC-DOS, CP/M and 

other operating systems in 300 different 3 1/2", 5 1/4" and 8" formats. Includes Apple, 

Apricot, Data General One, Kaypro 2000, Eagle, Epson, HP-150, and North Star 


Format conversion service Call for Information and pricing 


External Monitor Adaptor: The External Monitor Adaptor (EMA) allows your 
Kaypro to drive an external video monitor. Original characters and video display 
remain unchanged. The Kaypro monitor remains operative. Simple plug-in 

EMA Kaypro II or 4 $59.95 

Taxan 115 Monitor (12" Green) $149.95 

Taxan 116 Monitor (12" Amber) .$159.95 

EMA Kaypro 2'84, 2X, 4'84, 10'84 $74.95 

EMA Kaypro 10'83 $82.95 

12" Green Monitor* $159.95 

12" Amber Monitor* $169.95 

•Specially modified monitors must be used with all Kaypros except the original model 
II and 4. 

Clock/Calendar: Real time clock/calendar for all Kaypro computers without built-in 
clocks. Works with Plu'Perfect DateStamper or your own application software. 
Source code drivers provided for use with MBASIC, SBASIC, dBASE II, Turbo 
Pascal, C, and assembly languages. The Clock/Calendar also functions as a host 
adapter to our RAM Disk and hard disk add-on products. Add these other products 
later and save money. 
Clock/Calendar Interface $99.95 

TurboROM: A ROM enhancement for all 8-bit Kaypro computers. Faster disk 
read/write, keyboard type-ahead, faster video display for newer Kaypros, and larger 
TPA (63K) for the Kaypro 10. The TurboROM supports up to four 48TPI (392K) or 
quad density 96TPI (790K) floppies all with 255 directory entries. Built-in drivers 
support up to 2Mb of RAM Disk and up to 1 12Mb of Hard Disk. Many more features. 
Specify Kaypro model when ordering. 
TurboROM . $79.95 

Electronic RAM Disk: High speed internal RAM Disk for all Kaypro models. 
Expandable to 1Mb in 256K increments, then add the 1Mb expansion board for a full 
2Mb RAM Disk. This RAM Disk delivers more performance than the competition. Add 
hard disks or Real Time Clock later and save. 

Speed Comparison at 4 MHz - 

Times measured 

n seconds 






Load "" 





Write 64K file 





256K RAM Disk $399.95 

512K RAM Disk $53*95 $459.95 

768K RAM Disk $59>95 $519.95 

1Mb RAM Disk $68>95 $579.95 

1Mb Expansion Board (256K Installed) $355.35 .... $332.50 

256K Expansion Memory kit $115.00 $39.95 

Hard Disk Add-in (Kaypro 10): Add an additional 10 or 20Mb drive Inside your 
Kaypro 10, or install a single 32 to 56Mb drive. Package includes hard disk, all cables 
and mounting hardware. TurboROM included. Can be expanded to include RAM 
Disk and Real Time Clock. 
10 to 56Mb Hard Disk Kit Prices start at $689.95 

Hard Disk Add-in: Add an internal 10 to 56Mb hard disk to any floppy disk based 
Kaypro computer. Includes hard disk, disk controller, all cables and mounting 
hardware. TurboROM included. 

10Mb System $1075.95 

20Mb System $1506.95 

32Mb System $1639.95 

External Hard Disk Add-on: Add an external enclosure with 10 to 112Mb of hard 
disk and up to 2Mb of RAM disk to your CP/M Kaypro. Mix and match to meet your 
requirements. Can be expanded to include RAM disk and Real Time Clock. 
External Hard Disk Add-on Prices start at $1436.95 


Autodiff: File difference detector. This program finds insertions, deletions, and 
changes between any two files. Autodiff can mark the file, display, or print the 
differences, and morel 
Autodiff (CP/M) ^ $29.95 

CP/M DateStamper: Automatically stamp your files with the date it is created, last 
read, or modified. Works without a Real Time Clock, or with the clock in the newer 
Kaypros or with the Advent Clock/Calendar. Utilities are included to allow copying, 
erasing, or renaming files based on time and date. A time logging utility is included to 
record computer usage for business/tax purposes. 
DateStamper (CP/M) $49.00 

Format Conversion Software: Your Kaypro can read and write many popular 
disk formats including MS-DOS, PC-DOS & TRSDOS. 

Uniform: up to 80 formats $69.95 

Media Master: up to 75 formats $39.95 

Media Master Plus: Read & write up to 75 formats. Includes ZP/EM program 

which allows CP/M programs to run on your MS-DOS computer. An $80 value. 

Media Master Plus (MS-DOS) $59.95 

Sidekick: One of the most popular programs ever written. Use Sidekick as a 
calculator, notepad, appointment calendar, auto dialer, ASCII conversion table and 
much more. On-line help if you forget any of Sidekick's many functions. 
Sidekick (MS-DOS) $54.95 

SmartKey II: New Release! Same great time saver as the original. Makes every 
software program easier to use. Can reduce keystrokes by more than 50% by 
redefining any key on your keyboard to be any combination of characters or 
commands that you desire. 
SmartKey II $49.95 

SmartPrint: A powerful add-on to SmartKey, SmartPrint is a vesatile writing tool 
designed to give you full access to your printer's features such as wide, bold, 
condensed, underlined, subscript, superscript, and more. Works great with 
programs like WordStar and others. 
SmartPrint $29.95 

ZP/EM: Run almost any CP/M program on your IBM or compatible. Can be used 
with Media Master or Uniform to allow programs on CP/M disk formats to run directly 
on your MS-DOS computer. 
ZP/EM (MS-DOS) $39.95 


C/80 Ver 3.1 : Full featured C compiler and runtime library. One of the fastest on the 
market. Mathpak provides true 32 bit floating point and signed integer data types. 

C/80 Ver. 3.1 (CP/M) $49.95 

C/80 MathPak (CP/M) $29.95 

Toolworks C: This compiler is a complete subset of C. The two-pass compiler 
produces relocatable object files (.obj) which are compatible with the MS-DOS LINK 
program. Mathpak provides true 32 bit floating point and signed interger data types. 

Toolworks C Compiler (MS-DOS) $49.95 

Toolworks C MathPak (MS-DOS) $29.95 

Turbo Pascal: Borland version 3.0. The best Pascal compiler on the market. 

Turbo Pascal ., $69.95 

Turbo Toolbox: Set of 3 utilities for use with Turbo Pascal. 

Turbo Toolbox $54.95 

Turbo Tutor: Step-by-step instructions on how to use Turbo Pascal. 

Turbo Tutor $34.95 


Infocom - Most popular computer games (CP/M) 

Cutthroats $39.95 

Deadline $49.95 

Enchanter $39.95 

Hitchhiker $39.95 

Infidel $44.95 

Planetfall $39.95 

Seastalker $39.95 

Sorcerer $44.95 

Starcross $49.95 

Suspect $44.95 

Suspended $49.95 

Wishbrlnger $39.95 

Witness $39.95 

Zork I $39.95 

Zork II $44.95 

Zork III $44.95 




up wcii 3.23.inst en 
her lap-tops are a li 


50 Profiles 

■lannon. All rights reserved.. 


'. ■,'■■■■* 

Adventure: Explore the dangerous Colossal Cave for treasures. Endure mystical 

spells and overcome adversaries. The only original uncut version. 

Adventure $19.95 

Airport: You are an air traffic controller and your radar screen is filled with aircraft 
under your guidance. See how long you can last without cracking. Tougher than the 
real thing I 
Airport (CP/M) $19.95 

Eliza: The pioneering artificial intelligence program, Eliza is a psychiatrist that 
carries on a conversation in plain English about anything you wish. Great to play 
alone or in a group. 
Eliza $24.95 

MyChess: This award-winning world class chess program features nine skill levels 

with over 850 opening moves. Prints moves and saves game in progress. 

MyChess $34.95 

Word Wiggle: Scrambled letter game for building vocabulary skills of young and 

old. Eleven skill levels containing 40,000 word dictionary. Fast paced, fun, and 


Word Wiggle $29.95 


MyDiet: Create your own personal nutritional profile that will help you derive the 
maximum benefit out of the foods you eat. MyDiet is designed for the professional 
nutritionist, but is easy to use. Compares to programs costing hundreds of dollarsl 
MyDiet (MS-DOS) $49.95 

Computer Chef - #1 in the Series: The computerized cookbook for food lovers. 
Contains a database of almost 100 recipes with space to add your own. Auto scale 
ingredient quantities, find recipes by key words or type of ingredients you want to 
use, then display or print your selection. 
Computer Chef $29.95 

What's for Dinner - #2 In the Series: 200 main dish and dessert recipes. 

Requires Computer Chef program (not included). 

What's for Dinner $19.95 

The Best of Wok Talk - #3 in the Series: Exotic Chinese cooking. Over 100 

recipes from China. Includes Computer Chef program. 

The Best of Wok Talk $29.95 


Basic Office: Time & Billing program designed to automate the special needs of the 
professional office. Provides personal calendars, client timekeeping, account billing, 
receivables tracking, Trust & Deposits accounting, and flexible management reports. 
Three versions are available, each tailored to the specific requirements of Lawyers, 
Accountants, Professionals. 
Basic Office $299.95 

Checks & Balances version 3.6: A complete personal checking program or 
business register. 3.6 is completely rewritten and includes check writer and data 
base. It is easy to learn and use with new features including more types of reports. 
Complete with new 1 80 page manual. An excellent money manager! 
Checks & Balances $74.95 

Graflks 2.4: High performance business graphics package which produces "best 
possible" display and prints high resolution graphics on your printer. Produce 
professional pie, bar and line charts all with shading for added appeal. 
Grafiks 2.4 (CP/M) $1Jfc00 . . . $69.95 

Rembrandt Ver. 3.0: The most popular graphics program for the Kaypro 

computer. Supports most dot matrix printers. 

Rembrandt (CP/M) $79.95 

Stardrive: Enhance WordStar by including high resolution graphics, on line 
100,000 word spelling checker, thesaurus, and a calculator to do common math, all 
while inside the edit mode of WordStar. 
Stardrive (CP/M) $1^9t95 . . . $99.95 


Punctuation & Style: Improves your writing by catching unbalanced quotes, 
parentheses and brackets, improper abbreviations, capitalization, sentence 
structure, much more. It's like having your own copy editor! 
Punctuation & Style $125.00 

Thesaurus: This powerful 90,000 word Thesaurus allows you to select the best 
word for the application. Works inside WordStar for greater ease of use. Instantly 
searches its dictionary, then displays synonyms, and automatically deletes the 
"wrong" word and replaces it with the "right" word. Requires 380K disk storage. 
Word Finder $79.95 

Wordpatch: Print files with tiny, compressed, wide, or wide compressed type faces, 
5 sizes of italic, real superscripts and controls to learn. Supports most popular dot 
matrix printers. A must for WordStar usersl 
Wordpatch $49.95 

The Word Plus: The ultimate spelling checker. Not only finds misspelled words but 
shows you correct spelling options, shows the word in context, builds dictionaries of 
special words you use and much more. 
The Word Plus (MS-DOS) $150.00 


Funzeez: Build fundamental arithmetic and language skills. Provides four different 
programs to choose from: flashing numbers, arithmetic drills, unscrambling words 
and word guessing. Grades 2-5. 
Funzeez $34.95 

Math Tutors: Improve your skills in basic thru advanced math. Learning thru 
multiple-choice problems with help and hint functions provided. Grades 8-College. 

Algebra $34.95 Calculus $34.95 

Geometry $34.95 Trigonometry $34.95 

SAT Score Builder: This program is designed to help students prepare for the 

Scholastic Aptitude Test required by most colleges and universities. Includes Help 


SAT Score Builder $34.95 

Reading Professor: Now you can use your computer to boost your reading speed 
while increasing comprehension and retentionl Self-paced lessons show immediate 
improvement and feedback. Includes several different practice exercises. 
Developed by skilled educators, this program tracks user's progress and monitors 
reading rates up to 2500 wpm. Additional reading libraries available. 
Reading Professor $15.95 

Typing Tutor: Comprehensive program for use in teaching beginning skills or 
improving speed and accuracy. Not a simple minded drill, this program teaches you 
proper finger placement. Basic thru advanced drills using "real world" text examples 
for both the main keyboard and the numeric keypad. 
Keyboard - The Computer Typing Tutorial (CP/M) $39.95 


Printer & Modem Cables: These high quality cables are designed to work 
between your particular printer or modem and your Kaypro. Specify make and model 
of printer and Kaypro model when ordering. 

RS-232 Serial: 6ft -$17.95 12ft -$22.95 

Kaypro 16 RS-232 Serial.- 6ft -$19.95 12ft -$24.95 

Centronics Parallel: 6ft -$24.95 10ft -$28.95 

Kaypro 16 Parallel: 6ft -$27.95 10ft -$31.95 

Modem Cable: 2ft - $1 9.95 4ft - $22.95 

12ft Keyboard Cable: Replaces the original 4ft cable. Designed to meet the exact 

requirements of your Kaypro. 

12ft Keyboard Cable $9.95 

Anti-Glare Screen: Increases contrast and reduces glare. Attaches directly to the 
CRT and requires no disassembly. Please specify Smoke or Green when ordering. 
Anti-Glare Screen $19.95 

Finger Print "Letter Writer": Add near-letter-quality print, IBM and Apple 
Graphics printer emulation, plus 16 other print functions to your Epson FX series 
printer! Replacement ROMs, easy installation does not void printer warranty. 
Finger Print "LetterWriter" $79.95 

Keyboard Template: Fits over your keyboard to provide a complete WordStar, 
Mailmerge and SpellStar reference guide at your finger tips. CP/M computers only. 
Keyboard Template $16.95 


Diskettes, Double Density: 
Maxell 10-packwith storage box: 

Single Sided $19.95 

Double Sided $23.95 

3M box of 10: 

Single Sided $22.95 

Double Sided $26.95 

Economy Diskettes: package of 25 including tyvek sleeves. 
Single Sided $29.50 Double Sided . 


Call or write for our FREE catalog. 

All items are warranteed for 90 days. 30 day money back guarantee if not completely 
satisfied. Money back guarantee for software applies only if diskette seal is intact. 
VISA and MasterCard are welcome. Please add $2.00 freight per total order 
(additional freight on monitors) and $2.00 for COD orders. California residents 
please add 6% sales tax. Prices, availability and specifications subject to change 
without notice. 

B?4SRS rk li,.? : 5W - J &ra > ,P 0I PL PX -.8 ' QX-10 / Fx " Epson Core: CP/M - DRI; MS-DOS - Microsoft: 
PC-DOS - IBM C<5p.; dB ASE II - Askon Tate; WordStar, MaSmerge, SpellStar - MicroPro. "•""«". 



National (800)821-8778 

California (800)521-7182 

Hours: Mon - Fri 8 am - 5 pm PDT 

■rfll IllW 111 3154-FELaPalmaAva 
■■ ■"■■ T? - Anaheim, CA 92806 

PrDdUCCS IflC (714)630 0446 

The hardware 

About the size of a three-ring notebook (its dimensions 
are 1 1 .5 inches by 1 3. 1 inches by 2.6 inches), the 2000 
will lit in a briefcase or an overnight bag. It conies with 
a padded nylon carrying case with a detachable shoul- 
der strap and briefcase handle. 

The car lying case and the computer itself are both 
"Kaypro black."' The 2O00 has a lightweight brushed 
aluminum casing, with sculpted rubber protection 
grips and a built-in handle. 

One 3.5-inch disk drive comes standard. Because 
each disk can contain 720K. you have the same disk 
storage with one drive as two IBM 360K 5.25-inch 
disks. The decision to use 3.5-inch disks was based 
largely on technical advantages. The 3.5-disk drives 
generate less heat, use less power, and take up less 

space. The low power requirements of the entire system 
design allow the 2000 to run all afternoon on the 
internal battery. A 1 15v AC adapter/recharger is stan- 
dard with each 2000. 

The CPU is a 4.77 MHz CMOS (low power consump- 
tion) equivalent of an 8088. the cornerstone of IBM PC- 
type system architecture. The 2000 also has a socket 
for adding an 8087 math coprocessor. An 8087 chip 
can dramatically reduce the time required lor some 
mathematical operations, provided you have software 
that supports the math coprocessor. 

The 2000 comes with 256K of RAM. with the option 
of expanding to 768K. The ROM is 16K— less than some 
other compatibles, but enough to do the job. 

The software 

Bundled with the 2000 are MS-DOS version 2.11. 
WordStar version 3.3 lp. CorrectStar, MailMerge+, 
Starlndex, PolyWindows. Traveling Expense Manager. 
MITE, and GW-BAS1C. In addition to these Kaypro 

W T1 

dards, you can use virtually any software for the 
There are enough MS-DOS computers in the 3.5- 
'inch format on the market that the third-party software 
houses have responded with an impressive parade of 
popular programs. The disk format for the Kaypro 2000 
is the same as for the Data General One. Software that 
runs on the Kaypro 2000 includes dBASE II, Lotus' 
Symphony and 1-2-3, MicroStufs Crosstalk XVI, and 
Lifetree's Volkswriter Deluxe. (Even Flight Simulator 
can be made to run on the 2000, but the slate gray skies 
on the LCD leave one feeling that aerial outings are best 
left for color systems.) 

Here's looking at you 

The 2000 's liquid crystal display, 8.9 inches wide and 
2.85 inches high, can display as many lines and rows as 
a full-size CRT monitor, plus 640 x 200 bit map graph- 
ics. Unfortunately, there's still much room for improve- 
ment. The problem with large LCDs is inherent in the 

^^ The problem with 
^P*" large LCDs is inherent 
in the technology. 

Although all large LCDs leave something to be 
desired, the only alternatives are electroluminescent 
(EL) and gas-plasma displays. EL and gas-plasma tech- 
nologies are prohibitively expensive (particularly gas 
plasma) and require considerably greater power use. 
All things considered — price-performance ratio, power 
requirements, and ruggedness — the LCD is the best a 
lap-top computer user can hope for at present. 

Kaypro's full-size LCD (25 lines by 80 columns), like 
those of all other lap-tops, has problems with glare and 
limited contrast. Because LCDs are dependent on 
ambient light, the screen can become nearly unread- 
able with almost any change in the screen angle or 
angle of the light source. 

Kaypro has alleviated this problem by making the 
2000 's keyboard detachable. By separating the key- 
board from the 2000, you can adjust the angle of the 
display for optimal viewing without affecting the angle 
of the keyboard. It's puzzling to me that the flip-top 
display wasn't engineered to allow variable angle lock, 
instead of the fixed-angle ( 1 20 degrees) , but the detach- 
able keyboard solves that problem to an extent. 

The keyboard 

The keyboard for the 2000 is self-contained and ultra- 
compact. In fact, the dimensions of the keyboard (12.3 
inches wide by 5 inches deep) determine the scale of the 
entire machine. As long as the QWERTY keyboard 
remains the industry standard, keyboards will be the 
main limiting factor in the size of lap-top computers 

The Kaypro 2000 keyboard features 76 full-size 
sculpted keys with excellent tactile response. Every 
key on the IBM PC is represented on the Kaypro 2000. 
Ten function keys are in a row across the top of the 
keyboard. Cursor controls are in an inverted T on the 
lower right side. The Num-Lock key controls the 
numeric pad, which resides in the 7-8-9, U-I-O, J-K-L, M 
and period portion of the central keyboard. 

When first using the keyboard, I had some problems 
because I tend to rest the heels of my palms on the desk 
and front edge of the keyboard. Piano teachers and 
typing instructors repeatedly tell their students that 
one's hands should hang in the air with only the 
fingertips making contact with the keys. For concert- 
quality word processing that may be true, but in the 
mundane workaday world, the hands tend to yield to 
gravity. Unfortunately, when the hands rest on the front 
of the 2000 keyboard, the ALT key can be depressed, 
with mixed-signal results that turn WordStar into a 
Black Hole. 

All in all, the keyboard is good. The coiled cable that 
connects the keyboard to the 2000 can stretch to 
approximately five feet, so you have plenty of room to 
get comfortable. The keyboard can be used within the 
2000's casing, or set on a desktop. Flip-down supports 
are built into the keyboard casing, just as they are on 
the IBM PC keyboard. Between the keyboard and the 
LCD are the 3.5-inch disk drive and a diskette storage 
space that holds two diskettes 

52 Profiles 

ters. jt&ac 

Works well with others 

Most competing MS-DOS lap-top computers fall 
one of two categories: either they are stand-a 
machines, or they are designed to complement desktop 
microcomputers. The Kaypro 2000 offers full func- 
tionality in both capacities. It delivers desktop IBM PC 
power in a lap-size package, at less than two-thirds the 
price. With the bundled software, the Kaypro 2000 is a 
functional, self-contained computer. 

The optional base unit ($795) is an expansion chas- 
sis that holds two full-length expansion cards and has 
room for two half-height 5.25-inch disk drives, or one 
half-height 5.25 floppy and a half-height hard disk. 
With the base unit, special-purpose cards can be used 
with the 2000, and direct conversion from 3.25- to 
5 .25-inch diskettes is a snap. It also features both serial 
and parallel ports, freeing you from reliance on the 
single serial port on the 2000. 

Interfacing the 2000 with the base unit is simple and 
straightforward. On the bottom of the 2000 is a 5.5- 
inch hard rubber strip. Slip that protective strip away 
and you'll see two lines of 50 pins. This 100-pin male- 
to-female interface seats securely atop the correspond- 
ing pin slots on the upper surface of the base unit. No 
cables are needed. 

Similarly, the multi-adapter unit ($155) allows the 
2000 to snap directly into place. With the multi- 

japter, you can connect external disk drives and an 

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Inventory™ is the most comprehensive system available 
for only $295.00. 

Interactive, easy-to-follow programs • Self-instructive, user documentation • 
Multiple locations and departments • Stores and sells fractional units to three places ■ 
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51 Disks 



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♦Oklahoma 1-800 654 4058 

RO. Box 1674 Bethany, OK. 73008 

*Nevada 1 800 621 6221 

RO. Box 1213 Boulder City, NV. 89005 

TERMS 1 Minimum 20 disks or *35°-° — VISA or MasterCard accepted 
C.O.D. orders add 2°-° for special handling. SHIPPING: 3> ?s 5^ Diskettes; 
Add 3°-° for every 100 Diskettes or any fragtion thereof. 8"Diskettes; Add 
4<*> for every 100 Diskettes or any fraction thereof. We ship UPS; orders 
requiring other delivery methods add shipping, plus 2% of total order. 


Manufacturer's System - meets the unique need of manufacturers with bills- 
of-materials, parts required projections, "where-used" summaries, work-in- 
process, interactive Purchase Order system, and more. Interactive Sales Invoicing 
option available. $595.00 

Point-Of-Sale System - designed especially for retailers and distributors. 
Prints invoices; automatically adjusts inventory; includes multiple costs, 
locations, and vendors; provides detailed sales and profitability analysis. 
Interactive Purchase Order option available. $495.00 

General Inventory System - a comprehensive system useful to any business, 
it includes multiple costs, vendors, and locations, sales history, and detailed 
reports. Purchase Order and Sales Invoicing options available. $295.00 

Supported by an established company of professionals 
that has grown through customer satisfaction since 
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Demo Systems are available that include the 
comprehensive manual and software with sample data. 

Call or write for a detailed brochure today. 

Available on CP/M and MSDOS 


~1^ Box 668 • Encinitas, CA 92024 
(619) 436-3512 • Dealer inquiries invited 

Computerware is a federally registered trademark of Computerware. 

KAYPRO 2000 


RGB monitor. The multi-adapter includes a 5.25-inch 
disk port, a 3.5-inch disk port, a parallel port, and one 
half-length slot for a video card. Although the multi- 
adapter will accept any half-length video board, 
Kaypro recommends using the Persyst II color card. 

If you have an IBM PC or compatible, Kaypro offers 
another option for modem-less transfer of files from the 
2000 to the desktop. Kaypro's PC card and cable ($95) 
are designed to be plugged into the desktop PC and into 
the 5.25-inch port on the multi-adapter module. A 
software switch steers the drive to either computer, 
allowing you to transfer files between the 2000 and 
your desktop without needing to buy an additional 

The Kaypro 2000 is 

a junctional, self- 
contained computer. 


Extra drives 

If you do want another disk drive, Kaypro offers an 
ultra-small disk drive (1 x 4.5 x 6 inches) in the 3.5- 
inch format. This external drive is enclosed in a 
brushed aluminum black casing, so it matches the 
2000. Because this disk drive (priced at $295) is self- 
contained, it is as portable as the 2000. 

To use the optional 3.25-inch external disk drive, 
you simply connect the cable that conies with it into the 
multi-adapter's 3.5-inch port. Like the 2000, this exter- 
nal drive is battery powered. 

If you want an external 5.25-inch disk drive, Kaypro 
offers one for $295. This 360K IBM-format drive is also 
enclosed in a matching brushed aluminum case and is 
fully portable. The 5.25-inch disk drive is designed to 
fit on your desktop, next to the 2000, but its internal 
power supply lets you take it anywhere. 

The full potential 

Although the Kaypro 2000 comes with 25Wbf RAM, 
you may want additional memory. At your option, you 
can have the factory install RAM chips to bring the 
system up to a total of 768K RAM. You could install the 
extra memory yourself, but letting the factory handle 
installation protects your warranty 

With the full 768K ($195), spreadsheet and disk 
copying operations are much more convenient. And 
because the extra memory is internal, you aren't tied to 
the base unit. MS-DOS cannot use memory above its 
640K boundary, but Kaypro includes RAM disk soft- 
ware that can make use of memory above 640K. 

If you want to add an internal modem ($295), Kaypro 
offers a 1200-baud Hayes-compatible modem. The 
internal modem snaps into a connector on the main- 
bo,ard and fits completely inside the 2000 s casing, 
mother Kaypro option is the serial-to-parallel 

54 Profiles 

Comparing Lap-top Computers 


Data General 

Grid Systems 






Texas Inst, 


Product Name 


Gridcase 1 


Kaypro 2000 

Pivot II 

Datavue 25 



Z-171 Portable 











Weight (lbs,) 










Operating System 













272K RAM 





256k RAM 


Storage Media 



3,5 (option) 




bubble cart, 



Display Type 










Display Size 










Battery Life (firs.) 










Bundled Software 



Lotus 1-2-3, 








New Word, 
Phone dir„ 
Exec, utilities 




on page 58) 

Note: LCD = liquid crystal display; EL = electroluminescent, "Note: PC-5000 includes a built-in miniature printer. 



OSBORNE, KAYPRO, EPSON, MORROW & most CP/M 80 formats, & for the IBM-PC & MS-DOS computers. 

"TOUCHTYP — a well thought out program —fine value — high opinion of program and 

Its marketer, Micro-Art Programmers" Portable Companion 
"TOUCHTYP — excellent, easy to use program — excellent manual" Delithium Press 
"FINANCE, SBACOUNT.MBACOUNT— each easily Installed and running at full power 

in 20-30 minutes! Each quite effective, inexpensive, efficient —favorably compared to 

MBACOUNT/$S9.00 Small business double entry accounting. Up to 40 each Asset, 
Liability & Income, 80 expense & 20 capital accounts, all user assignable. Mulitple 
checking accounts. Prints chart of accounts & checks, prints detail journal, P&L, Balance 
Sheet, single account details & check register(s) year to date or any month. Reconciles 
checking account(s). Generates and stores on disk a detail journal for audit trail. 
A/R, A/P, PAYROLL, INVENTORY Available as completely stand alone software or 
modules fully integrated with MBACOUNT. Stand alone $79.00 ea. Integrated $50.00 ea. 
PROFBILL/$149.00 A time keeping and billing program for any professionals who bill at 
various hourly rates. Handles up to 400 clients, 20 partners/employees at 3 hourly rates 
ea., 80 job descriptions & 40 out of pocket expense descriptions with up to 40 characters 
each. Can handle both fixed fee and hourly billing. Prints billing, monthly statements, aged 
billing report, partner/employee hours, client activity report & more. Perfect forattorneys, 
engineers, CPAs, architects, etc. May be used as a stand alone program or fully integrated 
with MBACOUNT. Approved by the ABA for listing and advertising in their LOCATE 

SBACOUNT/$79.00 Small business single entry accounting. Up to 99 each income & 
expense categories all user assignable. Handles multiple checking accounts. Prints chart 
of accounts & checks, prints income/expense journal, P&L, single account details, check 
ledger year to date or for any month. Generates an income expense detail journal on disk 
for audit trail. 

MAILLIST/$B9.00 A mailing list and filing program with ten fields per record, up to 900 
records per file and number of files limited only by disk space. Sort/print/display all or 
partial list by any field keyed to any other 4 additionalf ields either various reports or 1 , 2 or 
3 across labels on any 80 col. printer. Custom print modeforspecial reports. Auto Zip code 
checker on entry. Search, add, delete, edit by any field. Very easy to use. 


much more costly software" Life Insurance Selling 

"SBACOUNT — easy to use — easy to learn — Software gets a 7 on scale of 10 —first 
software under $150 to get above a 41 I'm impressed — plan to use it In my business" 
Osborne Users of Tulsa 

MBADATA/S89.00 A data base/filing system usable without learning any language or 
control codes. Operator may install up to 253 characters per field, 24 fields, 900 records 
per file and files limited only by disk space. Sort, print, display any fields in any location in 
any order desired. Completely menu driven with on screen step by step prompts. 
STANFORM/$79.00 Do you fill out standard pre-printed forms? Then this program is for 
you! Generates and saves to disk if desired programs to print the data required in the 
correct location on any pre-printed form that will fit into your printer. Generate a program 
for each form you use following the menu driven on screen step by step prompts of this 
software and you are in business. In use at many businesses, small officesand by the U.S. 
and local governments. 

$FINANCE/$79.00 A very fast and easy to use personal finance program. Up to 120 
expense & 9 income categories may be installed. Can handle up to 9 checking accounts 
and nine charge accounts. Prints and/or posts checks/charges to as many categories as 
required, reconciles checking account(s), prints budget comparisons, check register(s), 
for year to date or for any month, & more. An excellent program that will more than earn its 
cost come each April 15th! 

TOUCHTYP/$49.00 Beginners, intermediate & advanced typing lessons that parallels 
high school/college touch typing courses. Displays typos, final score. Timed speed drills. 
Electronic one line memory electronic typewriter mode with settable tabs, line spacing, 
margins, etc., works with any printer. In use at many schools, colleges and the military. 
MSBCHART/$49.00 Prints an alphabetized listing of all variables and line numbers 
referenced in any basic program cross referenced to the line number where used. A real 
Godsend when writing or modifying any basic software. Just enterthe program name and 
the software does the rest! 


Place your order or request FREE catalog by mail or if using credit card or ordering COD, 
telephone any time day or night. You must add $3.00 per order for shipping and handling 
and an additional $3.00 if COD. Shipment will be via first class mail no laterthan the next 
working day after receipt, (checks may take 14 days to clear). California residents must 
add 6% to prices shown. Specify computer and disk format. (Visa, Mastercard & American 
Express card accepted.) 



1 73 Birch Avenue, Cayucog, CA 93430 

(805) 995-2329 

January 55 

Sill ■*. 



If you really want to 
know how valuable good 
business information 
can be, ask somebody 
who makes his living in 

the information busi- J|y| 

ness. Bill Gates, for 

A TON OF 11 


"I need a ton of 1 1 " ^ 

information to stay the ||f ■ IP^ 1 

leader in computer soft- £§ ; 

ware, but I have super- .'• ;i ,/ i : t^gj 

limited time. Which is ; , , * 

precisely why I read "*• * 

The Wall Street Journal . J 

"My company's part M 

of an industry that's M 

moving very fast. The IP /: - '- i -' '"^' ' ' : ' ; -'^"^%t\" 

Journal does a great job 

of keeping up with it. 

Their coverage of the 

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NO TIME I * m*^^&r , 

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A quick scan of 'What's News' on 
the front page tells me what stories 
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give you the most news in the few- 
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"They also give you a fresh per- 
spective. I like to read how non- 
industry people see and react to 
what's going on in my industry. It 
gives me a much better feel for the 
marketplace I'm competing in." 


"There are some things I don't 
have any way of finding out except 
by reading The Journal. Like which 
big companies are committing to 
what hardware. Information so 

important it influences the way we 
deal with our customers today 
and plan marketing strategies for 

"Why, even when there's no 
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It means I have a lot less 
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Bill Gates knows that 
every Monday through 
Friday, The Journal has 
all the business news you 
need, fresh, concise 
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Plus lively looks at 
leisure and the arts, pro- 
vocative editorials and 
political insights. 

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To have The Wall Street Journal 
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All the business news you need. When you need it. 

Outline Processing 
and More for CP/M ! 

$99 Complete* 

'Includes S/H U.S. & Canada. 
Overseas add $25.00 S/H 

KAMAS is available for most Z80, CP/M 
Computers. Ask about your system! 

VISA/MC Accepted. 
CALL: 503 -649-3765 
or WRITE: 


2525 S.W. 224th Ave., Dept. 201 

Aloha, Oregon 97007 

KAMAS, Z80 & CP/M are trademarks of KAMASOFT, 
Inc., Zilog, Inc., & Digital Research Inc., respectively. 

As an idea craftsman, you use your mind 
like a skilled pair of hands. You take hold of 
concepts, then manipulate them to 
discover, refine, convey dynamic new 

Now, the tool that can strengthen your 
creative grasp is well within your reach. 

KAMAS™, a revolutionary outline processor 
from KAMASOFT* supports your thinking 
process and keeps you in touch with your 
ideas. That's because KAMAS is designed 
to work the way your mind works — 

Begin by brainstorming. KAMAS enables 
you to jot down ideas quickly, as you think 
of them. If you want to elaborate, you can 
add text with full screen editing. 

Then develop your ideas using a familiar 
outline format. Change the structure as 
easily as you change your mind. Move an 
idea and all attached text moves with it. 

KAMAS puts full control at your fingertips. 
You can keep track of your main line of 

thought by collapsing the details from view. 
Then, expand the outline to develop the 
specifics when you need to. By collapsing 
and expanding portions of the outline, you 
can maintain an overview and literally see 
how your ideas fit together. 

And KAMAS is fast. Your ideas remain at 
your fingertips. KAMAS can locate and 
retrieve by keyword — even a misspelled 
one — in less than a second per topic file. 

Use as much of the power as you feel 
comfortable with. KAMAS is menu-driven 
with lots of on-line help screens. But you 
can also open the hood to find a high 
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Bring your ideas 
to life with . . . 

January 5 7 








Printer cables 












P.O. BOX 206 
Dewitt, New York 13214 

ORDER HOURS: Mon.-Fri.: 10 AM- 6 PM EST 

KAYPRO 2000 

(continued from page 55) 

printer interface ($65). This universal interface allows 
almost every common printer with a standard Cen- 
tronics parallel configuration to be connected directly 
to the 2000's serial port. 

Power supply 

If the 2000's four-hour battery isn't enough for you, you 
might consider the spare battery pack ($25). This 
external pack is small, measuring only 2 x 3.5 x 6 
inches. With the external battery pack you'll get 
another four to eight hours of operation. Like the 2000's 
internal battery, the spare battery pack can be 
recharged with the standard AC adapter. 

Kaypro even has an optional dual input charger for 
less than $50 that operates from either 1 15v AC or 12v 
DC. This adapter replaces the adapter/recharger that 
came with your Kaypro 2000 and plugs into a standard 
1 15v AC wall plug or the cigarette lighter in your car. If 
you happen to have a car with a 6- volt electrical system 
you don't need to buy the dual input charger. 'ibu 
simply go down to the nearest Radio Shack and buy a 
standard cigarette lighter power adapter. The only 
thing you have to be certain about is that the positive 
voltage is on the outside of the plug that connects to the 
back of your 2000, not the inside (they come both 
ways). This is probably the smartest use yet for a 
cigarette lighter. 

The competition 

The Kaypro 2000 isn't the first MS-DOS lap-top; the 
Data General One claims that distinction. One advan- 
tage of not being first is that there are already hun- 
dreds of popular software programs that run on the 
2000. And since the Kaypro 2000 shares the same 3.5- 
inch disk format as the Data General One, software for 
the Kaypro 2000 is already on dealer's shelves. 

The accompanying chart summarizes the features 
of other lap-tops now on the market. Peruse the chart 
and make your own judgments. Mt J. 

Frederick Hannon is a freelance writer and designer 
in Encinitas, California. He has written about 
Kaypro products for other computer publications, 
such as PC Retailing. 

"And this model runs all the party joke software." 

58 Profiles 

Accounting For Micros 


integrated accounting programs which 
meet professional standards. They're 
fast and easy to use, with complete in- 
structions. Our manual (shown abov 
also includes helpful information otE 
bookkeeping and computers. 


Allows up to 1,000 accounts & 1,000 
transactions/month. Retains mo/end 
balances for Last year, This Year and 
Forecast. Includes Cash Disburse- 
ments, Cash Receipts and General 
Journals. Reports include Balance 
Sheet, Income Statement, Annual 
Summaries and Journal Reports. 


Allows up to 2,500 customers and 1,000 
invoices per month. Invoicing can access 
Inventory Module. Keeps customer 
names and addresses. Invoice prints on 
plain paper or any pre-printed form. 
Statements can be printed at any time. 


Allows up to 4,000 parts. Keeps 3 
month history of unit sales as well as 
year to date. With AR, can be used as 
point of sale system (prints invoices, 
handles cash). Reports include Inven- 
tory Value and Stock Report, Internal 
and Customer Price List. 

Set of Four 

$329 Set of ' 
$465 Set of Five 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE ...... .... $125 

Allows up to 500 vendors and 600 in- 
voices/mo. Records invoices and hand- 
written checks. Prints computer checks 
on any pre-printed form. Keeps vendor 
names and addresses. 


Will handle up to 100 employees with 
eight deductions per employee. Deduc- 
tions may be determined as fixed dollar 
amounts or percentages, or referred to 
a table for automatic look-up. Tax tables 
are easily entered, or purchased sepa- 
rately. Prints checks and W2's. 





Apple CPM IBM PC.XT.PC jr,AT Sanyo (all) 

$13.00 J^ 


Try all 5 programs above (GL, AR, AP, 
IN, PR). Order our DEMO DISK for 
$18.00 (includes shipping). Condensed 
versions of the programs give you the 
"feel" of data entry and access. Includes 
sample reports and instructions. Specify 


Kaypro (all) 

Tandy (all) 


Morrow (all) 

Tele Video 


Osborne (all) 

Zenith 100 & 150 

Eagle (all) 


8 " CPM 

Epson QX-10 

Radio Shack CPM 

Other compatibles 

TMAN $125 

The "Catch-All" program. Files any 
type of information for quick access. 
Name or subject oriented with 15 lines 
of notes per name. Use TMAN as a 
mailing list, filing system, notebook, 
etc. Can be used alone or with data 
from our other programs. 
Try TMAN DEMO $16 

HOW TO ORDER: Please specify machine 
and disk format. You can pay by check, 
by VISA or MasterCard (we need your 
expiration date and card number), or by 
UPS COD (add $2.50 COD charge). Our 
price includes shipping. Minnesota resi- 
dents, add 6% sales tax). We ship most 
orders the same day. 
or ORDER BY PHONE: 612-339-2521 

James River Group 



125 North First Street 
Minneapolis, MN 55401 


Intersecting Concepts Announces 
3 Solutions To Solve Your 
Computer Incompatibility 

But will it work on my computer? Yes! 
Finally, there are three easy ways to 
exchange information, transfer files, and run 
CP/M software on MS-DOS machines. 



1. MEDIA MASTER is our 

direct disk-to-disk format 
conversion program. Already an 
accepted industry standard, this 
$39.95 program uses simple 
screen prompts that lets you 
read, write and format up to 70 different bVt" 
diskettes from CP/M, MS-DOS and PC-DOS 
operating systems. So if you work on a IBM 
PCompatible at the office, but use a CP/M computer 
at home, now you can easily transfer files that would 
otherwise be "foreign" to your computer's operating 


goes one step further by 
converting 8-bit CP/M software 
to run on 16-bit MS-DOS and 
PC-DOS machines. This newly 
released $59.95 product 
combines our IBM-PC version of Media Master with 
ZP/EM, a powerful new emulation program. The 
results are amazing: CP/M programs using 8080 
instructions and data can be transfered from popular 
computers like Osborne, Kaypro and Zenith to run on 
MS-DOS and PC-DOS machines! 

3. ACCELER-8/16 is also new 
and dramatically improves the 
performance of Media Master 
Plus by tailoring the CP/M 
emulation around a NEC V20 
microchip. This chip simply 

replaces the 8088 processor in your MS-DOS 
computer. Once installed, it'll run your CP/M and 
MS-DOS software much faster. (Speed improvements 
are roughly 15% faster in MS-DOS and 350% faster 
in CP/M!) With ACCELER-8/16 your MS-DOS 
computer is now CP/M compatible for only $99.95! 
All three solutions save you money by ehminating 
expensive modems and communications software. 

To Order 

To order Media Master, Media Master Plus, or 
Acceler-8/16, call 800-824-7888, and ask for operator 
251. For additional product and upgrade information 





Intersecting Concepts, Inc., 

4573 Heatherglen Ct., Moorpark, CA 93021 

or call 805-529-5073. 


(continued from page 47) 

• Modifying the Installation— Once you've got a 
manual installation up and running, you'll know 
enough to alter any part of it, changing features and 
making it larger or smaller as you wish. 

Tools needed 

If you're doing a semi-automatic or manual installa- 
tion, or buying one of the limited versions of the auto- 
matic installation, make sure you get all the ZCPR3 
documentation and help files. You can now get much of 
this information (minus help files) in a book— ZCPR3: 
The Manual, by Richard Conn, 351 pages, $19.95, 
from Echelon, Inc. 

If you're doing a manual installation or modifying 
any installation, you'll need a macro assembler. 
Because the basic ZCPR3 source code is written in 
8080 assembly language, you can use Digital Re- 
search's MAC assembler. 

Alternatively, you can get a Z80 code relocating 
macro assembler (also from Echelon) for $69— about 
the same price as MAC. This assembler, ZAS, comes 
with a linker and librarian, as well as with a program 
that converts 8*080 source code to Z80 source code. 
ZAS can also produce and use REL files compatible 
with Microsoft's Macro-80 assembler. 

Eventually, Echelon plans to convert all ZCPR3 
source code to Z80 code and to issue new source files 
only in Z80 code. If you don't already have MAC or 
Macro-80, ZAS is a good investment for the future. 

If you're doing a manual or semi-automatic installa- 
tion, get a copy of the ZCPR3 helper file, Z-HELPR.BBS, 
a list of people across the country willing to offer 
assistance with installations on various computers. 
This list is available on Z-Nodes (CP/M bulletin boards 
that carry the full ZCPR3 system— see list in last 
month's article) . If you don't have a modem to call one of 
these boards, make an effort to find someone who does, 
because both the list and the boards can save you a lot 
of time when you have questions about ZCPR3. 

Finally, make sure you get Echelon's Z-News, a news- 
letter put out every two weeks. Its full of tips, new 
discoveries, and information about fixes, updates, and 
new releases. You can either get it free from Z-Node 
bulletin boards or subscribe for $24 a year (six months 
free if you buy $39 worth of Echelon's products). Sub- 
scribers get Z-News about 10 days before it appears on 
the bulletin boards. ^B iJ 

Where To Get Z-System 

All parts of the Z-System, including ZCPR3, are avail- 
able directly from Echelon, Inc. at 101 First Street, Los 
Altos, CA 94022; orders: (415) 948-3820. 

ZCPR3 and its utilities are also available from public 
domain sources (though commercial products like Z3- 
Dot-Com, Z-Com, ZRDOS, etc., are not). See last 
month's article (page 30) for sample prices and contact 
phone numbers. 

60 Profiles 

File Processor 
breaks barrier. 

File works, the first File Processor™' lets you manipulate 
or backup your files with more power than any other program 
In fact, we'll guarantee it or your money back. 

What makes File*works different? 

File*works provides flexible tools, 
more than a hundred building blocks 
you never before had for creating 
your own powerful file commands and 

Kaypro® users' BAKUP News said... 
"The care and attention that has gone 
into this program is apparent from the 
moment it is in hand. This type of 
thoroughness and professionalism is 
what users have expected from 
software publishers for years. Finally a 
software publisher has delivered!" 

"... very powerful and yet easy to start 
using. I even found it a fun program. " 

". . . one of the nicest packages I have 
seen for CP/M software. " 

For Simple File Operations 

Computers already come with "tools" 
for basic file maintenance like copying, 
erasing, renaming, etc. File*works has 
many advantages: 

* It lets you do many more things. 

* You can specify files to exclude as well as to 
include in a file operation. 

* It lets you browse through your files, display 
their contents on your screen, and select those 
for copying, erasing, etc. Or you can operate 
on files automatically. 

* Its tools are smarter to optimize performance. 

* It is muchfriendlier. File*works understands 
English-like commands. And it will detect if 
you are having trouble and offer help. 

* File*works is more flexible. It can do things in 

System Requirements— Operating System: CP/M B or CP/M-86? At least 
2 disk drives. Your own editor program allows creation of custom file pro- 
cessing procedures. Available in 8" single density and popular 5" formats. 

* Some commands are designed especially for 
backup protection procedures. You can use 
them to backup your files using disk cartridge 
and some tape backup systems. And they 
provide unusual efficiency for backup from 
hard disk to floppy disk drives. 

* File*works gives you building blocks to make 
new tools. Do things with your files your way. 

30 Day Money-Back Guarantee 

We're so sure you'll be impressed with 
File*works we guaranteed it. 

Order Your File works Now 

different ways. Tell File*works your name and 
it will "behave" as you have indicated 
you prefer. 

For Complex File Operations 

File*works gives you more capabilities 
than you ever had before: 

* You can automate frequent or complex 
procedures, those you could do only by 
entering a long list of commands. By entering 
a single word you can start a procedure 
affecting hundreds of files on many disks. 

* Some commands can be used in a procedure to 
prompt the operator to take some action or enter 
information on the keyboard. Such information 
can be used in the procedure. 

* A File List lets you refer to hundreds of files, 
even files on different drives and user areas, 
with a single name. 

$129 Includes shipping. Out of US add 
$10, US bank draft. (Multi-unit company 
site rates available. ) 

You can call (415) 969-4969 or send 
check, bank draft, or card number 
and exp. date to: Pro*Access 
Dept.K.P.O. Box 747, 
Mountain View, CA 94042. 

end f 


O C E S S O R 

File*works is a trademark of Pro'Access. 
Digital Research. 

CP/M is a trademark of 

January 61 




"Move over MultiMate, MicroPro's back on top'.' 

—Business Software 

"The new package is packed with virtually dozens of 
features everybody wants. . .Even in a dedicated machine, 
word processing has never been more plushly self con- 
tained and comprehensive'.' 

—Personal Computing 

"Three early users of WordStar 2000 gave the program 
high marks for its overall design, mnemonic command set 
and intelligent use of function keys'.' 

— ComputerWorld 

"I've become addicted to some of the features such as undo, 
windows, and automatic reformatting'.' 

—Popular Computing 

"Include WordStar 2000 on your shopping list— it's com- 
petitive with anything now on the market'.' 

—Computers and Electronics 


Now there are no limits!" 






Microsoft" Word 





Mnemonic Commands 



Onscreen Tutor 
For Easy Learning 




Built-in Format Sheets 
For Easy Documents 



"Undo" To Easily 






Spelling Corrector 





Mail List Manager 


Windows Onscreen 



Four Function Math 



Alphabetic And Numeric 
Sorting Within Document 


"Macros" For Recalling Often 
Used Command Sequences 




Supports Over 100 Printers 



Experience With Over 
1.3 Million Owners 



Mw //zere are «o /zVwz'fc.' 


This updates and corrects comparisons with MultiMate which appeared previously. 

F°, r a , no mp J^ 9<™P a ri son <*?rt. write: MicroPro, Dept. 2000, 33 San Pablo Ave., San Rafael, CA 94903. Specifications are for the latest released versions of all products effective 

July 1985. MultiMate is a trademark of MultiMate Corp.; Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.; WordStar and MicroPro are trademarks of MicroPro International. 


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64 Profiles 


Subject Index • 1985 

Nancy Mulvany, indexer [1 1/85) 

The following is an index, by subject, of all articles appearing in PROFILES during 1 985. To enhance the readability of 
the index, the Dec/Jan, 1 985 issue citation has been shortened to [Jan). 

5 MHz upgrade, see clock speed upgrade ' 

8232 Data Acquisition and Control System (Starbuck Data Co.), (Mar)93 

ABBS (a BBS), (Jun)26 
ABstat (Anderson-Bell) 

reviewed, (Mar)60-63 
Accounting for Micros (James River Group), (Nov)40, 50-51 
accounting software 

Checks & Balances (CDE Software), (Apr)1 8-21 

programs reviewed, (Nov)49-55 

see also bookkeeping, income taxes 
Ada programming language, (Sep)10 
ADC, see analog-to-digital conversion systems 
ADC-1 (Remote Measurement Systems), (Mar)91-92, (Nov)43 
Adventure, (Mar) 19-21 

see also games 

telecommuting, (May)27-28, 36-37 
AGRICOLA, (Mar)57 

"Agricultural Computing" (Doane Publishing), (Mar)58 

Kaypro computer use, (Mar)54-59 

on-line information, (Mar)56-57 

reindeer herd management, (Mar)38 

software sources, (Mar)58-59 
AgriData Network, (Mar)57 
AIRPORT (The Software Toolworks), (Jan)21 
Allenbach colored disks 

formatting problems 
test results, (Jan)83-85 
American Association of Documented Sports Services 

Kaypro use, (Mar)32 
American Friends Service Committee, Kaypro use, (Mar)36 
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 

floppy disks, (Feb)62 
American Psychological Information Exchange (a BBS), (Dec) 19 
analog-to-digital conversion systems (ADC) 

applications, (Mar)74-77, 91 

control function, (Mar)72 

explained, (Mar)69-70 

sample program, (Mar)91-92 

system source list, (Mar)93 
Anda, Ruben De 

illustrations by, (May)43, (Jun)fc, 30 
ANSI, see American National Standards Institute 
anthropology research, Kaypro use, (Mar)36 
Apple computers 

Kaypro incompatibility, (Jun)10 

Kaypro use, (Jun)32-33 

missing persons 
Kaypro computer use, (Jun)36-40, 73 
Artifical Intellience: How Machines Think (Peat), (Dec)74 
artificial intelligence, books reviewed, (Dec)74-75 
ASCII, conversion to hexadecimal, (Sep)82 
Association of Electronic Cottagers, (May)38 
Astronomer's RBBS, (Feb) 38 
Atlantic E-Series (Atlantic Data Furniture), (Nov)44 
Australian bulletin boards, (Jun)26 
Automated Test Author (Resource Software International) 

described, (Sep)29 
auto-run files, (Jun)69 
AutoSoftBBS, (Nov)15 
AZ-Tech Dust Covers (Satori Designs), (Nov)44 

Backgrounder (Plu * Perfect Systems) 

reviewed, (Jun)17-18, (Dec)49-51 
Bad Sector, (Feb)46-49 

disbanded, (Mar)9 
BAKUP, see Bay Area Kaypro Users and Programmers 
BAKUP.COM, (Feb)67 

C Language comparison, (Oct)40 

program listing 
Sieve of Eratosthenes, (Jan)54 

see also MBASIC; SBASIC 

BASIC Tutorial (Advent Products) 

described, (Sep)29 
Bates, Jim (U.S. Congressman), Kaypro use, (Mar)38 
Bay Area Kaypro Users and Programmers (BAKUP), (Feb)46-48 
BAZIC (Micro Mike's), (Jan)22 
BDS C compiler (BDS Software), (Oct)40, 46 
Beaverton, Oregon R/CPM, (Feb)38 
Bibiliography (Pro/Tern) 

reviewed, (Jan)59-60 
bibliographic citation, see reference citation 
bibliographic databases 

searching, (Jan)8-10 

see also on-line databases 
BiGBURST.COM, (Feb)67-68 

BINEX Boston Information Exchange (a BBS), (Feb)38 
Bjorkman, Steve, illustrations by, (Oct)24 
Blackstone, Milton (DIGSIG), (Feb)59 
BLAST (Communications Research Group), (Jan)ctrfold c 

dBase II program, (Nov)29-33, 75, 77 

Perfect Calc, (Nov)36-38, 74 

programs reviewed, (Nov)49-55 

see also accounting 
book reviews, see reviews 
Borns, Steven, photographs by, (Apr)41 
Boston Kugel, (Jan)24 
Boulder, Colorado R/CPM, (Feb)38 
Brain Tumor Research Center (University of California, San Francisco) 

Kaypro use, (Mar)32 
Brand, Stewart, Kaypro use, (Apr)38-39 
Brigham, Bruce 

CP/M Programmer's Encyclopedia, (Oct)65-66 
British bulletin boards, (Jun)25-26 
Brod, Craig, TechnoStress— The Human Cost of the Computer Revolution 

Brother HR-15, WordStar proportional printing, (Mar)10 
Brown, Michael 

Screenwriting Made Easy/WordStar for the Screenwriter, (Jul/Aug)65 
bubble sort, (Oct)32-33 
Buckley, William F Jr. 

computers and society, (Apr)40-41 

Kaypro use, (Apr)36, 38 
buffers, see printers, buffers 
building restoration, Kaypro use, (Mar)38 
bulletin boards 

agricultural, (Mar)57 

ABBS, (Jun)26 

American Psychological Information Exchange, (Dec) 19 

AutoSoftBBS, (Nov) 15 

Computer Language Magazine BBS, (Oct)14-15 

Data Com Network, (Jul/Aug)41. 66-67, 72 

Day Rainbow, (Jun)27 

Disabled Interest Group's Electronic exchange (DIGEX), (Feb)51-53 

Electronic Pub, (Dec)70 


Forum-80, (Jun)25 

hardware requirements, (Dec)55-56 

income tax information, (Apr)28 

Individual Investor, (Dec) 17 

international, (Jun)24-27 

International Asso, for Cryptologic Research, (Dec)1 8 

JADATeleport System, (Jun)27 

JAPAN Mai-Kon Club, (Jun)27 

Jeddah RBBS, (Jun)25 

KAY*FOG (San Francisco), (Jun)22 

Kaypro National Users Group BBS, (Jun)24 
phone number corrected, (Sep)6 

Modem Times, (Jul/Aug) 18 

Notebook, The, (Jul/Aug)18-19 


PACOM BBS, (Jun)26 

Potpourri, (Jul/Aug)41, (Oct)15, 23 
phone number corrected, (Sep)6 

Pro-Comm I, (Jun)24 


RCPM software, (Dec)55-59 

RCP/M Software Tools, (Jun)26 

January 65 


Subject Index • 1985 

bulletin boards (continued) 

RecycleNet, (Dec) 17-1 8 

REWTEL, (Jun)26 

Satellite-Cable TV Network, (Dec) 18 

selected listings, (Jan)26-28, (Feb)38-40, 81, (Apr)24-28 

Smokin' Silicon, (Jul/Aug)41 

Space Shuttle missions, (Jan)27-28 

Sun City FIDO, (Jun)27 

Tcimpidis case, (Feb)28-36, 87 
dismissed, (Apr)68 

writers, (Jan)26-27 

Z-Nodes, (Dec)30 

see also modems; telecommunications 
business applications, see accounting software; 

bookkeeping; forecasting; income taxes 
Business Computer Systems 85, described, (Nov)68-69 

public domain, (Feb)42 
Byte. (Jan)24 

C/80 compiler (Software Toolworks), (Oct)40-41, 46 
cable wiring, see RS-232 
Campbell, Joe 

RS-232 Solution, The, (Mar)83 
Canadian bulletin boards, (Jun)26 

Canine Companions for Independence, Kaypro use, (Mar)35 
Capital Users' Group (CAPKUG), (Jun)34 
Carr, John F. (writer), Kaypro use, (Apr)36 
C.A.S.A.T. (a BBS), (Feb)38 
cataloging programs 

public domain, (Feb)24-25 
CAT.COM, (Feb)25 
cathode ray tube, see CRT 
Catholic Information Center (a BBS), (Feb)38 

name and phone number changes, (Apr)9 
CCITT, see International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee 
Center for Legal and Social Studies (CELS) 

Kaypro use, (Mar)36 

tracking Argentina's missing persons, (Jun)36-40, 73 
central processing unit (CPU), (Nov)59-60 
Character Design Kit (Woodsmith Software) 

reviewed, (Jun)55-56, 77 
character ROMs (Micro Cornucopia), (Dec)46 
Chartech (Techware) 

reviewed. (Jun)54-55, 77 
Charvet, Rick, photographs by, (Mar)55 
Checks & Balances (CDE Software), (Nov)40 

reviewed, (Apr) 1 8-21 , (Nov)52 
chess program, (Jan)20-21 
Chicago Public Library (a BBS), (Feb)40 
children, see education 
C Language 

BASIC comparison, (Oct)40 

compilers for system utilities, (Jun)10 

introduced, (Oct)39-42 

program listing 
dot command elimination, (Oct)42 
word count, (Oct)41 

Turbo Pascal comparison, (Oct)40 
China, Kaypro demonstration, (Mar)36-37 
Christmas gifts, see gift ideas 
Clarke, Arthur C. 

Kaypro use, (Apr)33-34 
Clearpoint International News, (Dec)70 
climate database, (Dec) 19 
clock speed upgrade 

Advent Turboboard reviewed, (Jan)51-56 
CLOCK.BAS, (Oct) 10 
clock crystals. (Nov)60-61 
Coach, The, see College Board Score Builder (Resource Software 

Cohabiting With Computers (Traub), (Dec)74 
College Board SAT Preparation Series (Krell Software Corp.) 

reviewed, (Sep)36-37, 74 
College Board Score Builder (Resource Software International) 

reviewed, (Sep)36-37, 74 
College Board Score Builder (Resource Software Int'l.), (Nov)41 
Collins, Joan, Kaypro use, (Apr)32 
Comedy By Wire (COMEDY BY WIRE), (Apr)91 
COMM725, (Apr)44-45 

communications, see telecommunications 
Communications Week, described, (Nov)71 

electronic publishing, (Jul/Aug)20 

Kaypro special interest group, (Jan)94, (Mar)26-30 
Computer Activity Center (Ohio Plastic and Safety Products), (Nov)44 
Computer Bits and Pieces (Simons), (Dec)75 
Computer Care Kit (UARCO Computer Supplies), (Dec)35, 46 
Computer Consultant, described, (Nov)68 
computer cover (Advent Products, Inc.), (Jan)ctrfold c 
Computer Dealer, described, (Nov)70 
Computer Design, described, (Nov)71 
Computer Language Magazine BBS, (Oct) 14-1 5 
computer magazines, (Nov)68-73 
computer newsletters 

starting one, (Jan)24-25 
Computer Products, described, (Nov)70 

AFL-CIO position on telecommuting, (May)27-28, 36-37 

courtroom use, (Mar)34 

CP/M installed market, (Sep) 14 

dictionary of common terms, (Oct)67-70, 74 

disabled persons, (Feb)51-59 

freelancing business, (Jul/Aug)25-29 

illegal use of, (Feb) 14 

individuality issues, (Apr)40-41 

recommended reading, (Jan)24, 32 

Tcimpidis case, (Feb)28-36, 87, (Apr)68 

telecommuting, (May)30-34, 76 

Third World, (Jun)1 2 

Toffler interview, (May)24-28, 72 

usefulness of, (May) 12, 64 

working at home, (May)38, 60 
Computer Systems News 

described, (Nov)70-71 
Connected Education 

online education, (Sep)18 
Co-Power-88 (SWP) 

Lotus 1-2-3, (Apr) 12 

MS-DOS upgrade, (Apr) 12 

Turbo Pascal, (Jun)1 1 
copy cover (C-THRU Products, Inc.), (Jan)ctrfold c 
Cosmic Math (Applied Software), (Sep)86 

reviewed, (Oct)64-65 
CPI Business Systems (Computer Professionals Inc.), (Nov)40 

reviewed, (Nov)50 

commands explained, (Dec)63, 66-67, 76-77 

described, (Jan)66-68 

installed market base, (Sep) 14 

MS-DOS comparison, (Jan) 68-70 

recommended reading, (Jan)16, (Mar)8 

user areas, (Oct)71 

version +, (Feb) 12-1 3 

version 2.2 and extra memory, (Feb)12-13 

version 2.2u1,(Dec)7 1,73 

see also CP/M2.2E (Plu* Perfect Systems), ZCPR3 
CP/M2.2E (Plu * Perfect Systems) 

reviewed, (Jun)16-17 
CP/M and the Personal Computer (Dwyer), (Jan)16 

reviewed, (Oct)65-66 
CP/M Programmer's Encyclopedia (Brigham) 

reviewed, (Oct)65-66 
C Programming Language, The (Kernighan), (Oct)39, 42 
CP/M Users Group (CP/MUG), (Feb)42, 59 
CPU, see central processing unit 
Critchfield, Margot, see Dwyer, Thomas 
CRITICAL CONNECTION (USS Enterprises), (May)73 
CrosNest II (a BBS), (Feb)40 
CRT, (Nov)59 

radiation emissions, (Sep) 10 
CRT Space Saver (Buddy Products), (Nov)44 
Crypto (Dynacomp) 

described, (Sep)32 
Cubbyhole (TSK, Inc.), (Nov)40 

reviewed, (Nov)54 
cursor blinking 

controlling, (Jun)68-69 

Darrow, David 
illustrations by, (Jan)50, (Apr)55, (Dec)25 

66 Profiles 


Subject Index • 1985 

data acquisition 
agricultural application, (Mar)56 
applications, (Mar)74-77, 91 
explained, (Mar)68-70 
sample program, (Mar)91-92, (Mar)92 
system source list, (Mar)93 
see also analog-to-digital conversion systems 
reference, (Dec) 17-1 9, 70 
text oriented (Notebook), (Jan)60 
Data Com Network (a BBS), (Jul/Aug)41, 66-67, 72 
data control systems, see analog-to-digital conversion systems; 

data acquisition 
Data Defender (Ring King Visibles), (Dec)35, 46 
Data Plotter (Lark Software) 

reviewed, (Apr)72-78 
Datasaver (Cuesta Systems), (Nov)42 

uninterruptible power supply, (Jan)48 
DataStar (MicroPro) 
printer problem, (Jan)14-15, (Feb)13 
DateStamper (Plu * Perfect Systems), (Mar)88 

reviewed, (Jun) 18 
Davies, William S„ The NECEN Voyage, (Dec)75 
Day Rainbow (a BBS), (Jun)27 
dBase II (Ashton Tate) 
bookkeeping program, (Nov)29-33, 75, 77 
program listing 

real-time clock, (Apr)54-59 
recommended reading, (Jan)20 
dBase II utility software (Software Research Technologies), (Jan)ctrfold d 
D.COM, (Feb)25 

WordStar patching, (Jul/Aug)33-36 
Dearstyne, John, illustrations by, (Dec)48 

electronic publishing, (Jul/Aug) 19 
desaparecidos, see Argentina 
Design Consortium, illustrations by, (Apr)73 
Desktop Accountant (Rocky Mountain Software) 

reviewed, (Nov)50 
developing nations, see Third World 
dictionary of common computer terms, (Oct)67-70, 74 
DIGEX(aBBS), (Feb)51-54 
Digital Deli (Workman Publishing), (Jun)74 
Digital Design, described, (Nov)7 1 
Digital Diagnostic Diskette (Dysan), (Sep)68-69 
DIGSIG, see San Diego Computer Society Disabled Interest Group 
DINSTALL, see DataStar (MicroPro) 
Directory of Fee-Based Information Services, (Jan) 10 
directory programs, public domain, (Feb)25-26 
disabled persons 

computer use, (Feb)51-59 
disappeared ones [desaparecidos], see Argentina 
disk directory 

explained, (Sep)62-64 
disk drive cleaner (Automation Facilities Corp.), (Jan)ctrfold c 
Disk Drive Diagnostic Kit (Sheepshead Software) 

reviewed, (Sep)70-71 
disk drives, (Nov)59 
diagnostics, (Sep)68-72 
hard disk upgrade, (Oct)49-52 
head cleaning, (Feb)11-12 
protectors, (Jul/Aug) 12 
servicing cycles, (Dec)9 
see also floppy disks 
disk editors, (Sep)59-64, (Oct)18, 22, 54-60 
Diskribe Marker (Sanford Corp.), (Nov)44 
disks, see floppy disks 
DU2.COM, (Oct)18 
DU-V77.COM, (Sep)59 
DU-V88.COM, (Sep)59-64, (Oct)54-60 

corrections, (Nov) 18 
Dwyer, Thomas 

CP/M and the Personal Computer, (Jan) 1 6, (Oct)64-65 
Dynax-Dx 15 

WordStdr proportional printing, (Mar)10 
Dysan's DDD, see Digital Diagnostic Diskette (Dysan) 

EATYPE (Micro Cornucopia) 

reviewed, (Sep)53-54 
Eco-Paradise (Public Interest Software), (Sep)28 

Eco System Company, Kaypro use, (Mar)35 
Edgar C. Bundy v. The Church League of America 

computer use during trial, (Mar)34 
EDN (Electronic Design News), described, (Nov)71 

children and computers, (Sep)33 

online, (Sep)16-18, 78 

SAT preporation, (Sep)35-37, 74 

software available, (Sep)27-29, 32-33, 83 

see also Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT); training 
electronic cottage, (May)38, 60 

see also telecommuting 
Electronic Design, described, (Nov)71 
Electronic Engineering Times, described, (Nov)71 
electronic mail networks, (Nov) 14- 17 
Electronic Pub (a BBS), (Dec)70 
electronic publishing, (Jul/Aug) 18-20 

see also writers 
Electronic University, (Sep)16 
Email, see electronic mail networks 
EMXv3.14, reviewed, (Dec)56-57 
encryption program, public domain, (Mar)23 
energy management, (Mar)74, 76 
ergonomic computer stand (Ergotron), (Jan)ctrfold b 
Ettlin, Walter A. 

MBASIC Handbook, The, (Jun)71-72 
EZ Church Finance System (EZ Systems), (Nov)40 
E-Z View Screens (Perception +), (Nov)44 
Ezzard, Dick 

"Shddes of WordStar," (Jun) 22 

Fahle-Colby, Janet, illustrations by, (Feb)39 
Fancy Font (SoftCraft) 

reviewed. (Jun)56, 60, 77 
fdn filters, (Sep) 13 

FAO, see Food and Agricultural Organization 
"Farm Computer News", (Mar)58 
Farm Futures, (Mar)57 
farming, see argriculture 

reviewed, (Feb)67-68, 70 
Father John's Place (a BBS), (Apr)9 
FBAD56.COM, (Feb)41 
Feature Format (PowerSoft) 
price correction, (Oct)7 
reviewed, (Jul/Aug)63-65 
Feigenbaum, Edward A., The Fifth Generation: Artificial 

Intelligence and Japan's Challenge to the World, (Dec)74 
FidoNet, described, (Nov) 16- 17 
Fido's Board (a BBS), (Feb)40 
File-It (Creative Computer Products), (Nov)44 

encryption, (Mor)23 

locking, (Mar)23 

public domain utility programs, (Apr)22-23, 86-87 

squeezing, (Mar)23 
Financial Filer (Woodsmith Software) 

reviewed, (Nov)54-55 
financial forecasting, (Dec)38-39, 42-44 
Finch-Rayner, Sheila (editor, "Space Chips") 

Kaypro use, (Apr)34-35 
FIND.COM, (Feb)25 
Fletcher, Leon 

How to Design & Deliver a Speech, Third Edition, (Mar) 14 
Flight Simulator (Microsoft) 

Kaypro 1 6, (Feb)76 
Flip 'N' File/10 (Spectrum Series), (Dec)35, 46 
floppy disks 

ANSI standards, (Feb)62 

care of, (Feb)65, 80 

formotting problems, (Jan)83-85 

disk editors, (Sep)59-64, (Oct) 18, 22, 54-60 

double-sided, double-density disk diagram, (Sep)60 

generic brands, (Feb)62-64 

manufacturers listed, (Feb)80 

manufacturing, (Feb)60-62 

organization of, (Sep)82-83 

selecting, (Feb)62-65, 80 

double-sided formatting, (Apr) 15 

January 67 


Subject Index • 1985 

floppy disks (continued) 
single-sided (continued) 

see also disk drives 
Fontanez, Edwin, illustrations by, (Feb]50 
Food and Agricultural Organization [FAO] 

Kaypro International Grants Program, (Jun)32 
Food for the Hungry, Kaypro use, (Mar]36 
Food for Thought (a BBS), (Feb)40 
footnote citation, see reference citation 
Footnote (Pro/Tern) 

reviewed, (Jan)58-59 
forecasting [business), (Dec)38-39, 42-44 
foreign characters, printing, (Jun)54-56, 60 
Fort Fone File Folder (a BBS), (Feb)40 
Forum-80 (a BBS), (Jun)25 
Frank-Art (Frank-Art), (Nov)41 

Freedom Fighter ST-61 1 Forms Tractor (Seitz Corp.), (Nov)43 
Freelancin' (a BBS), (Feb)40, (Apr)26, 28 
freelancing business, (Jul/Aug)25-29 
Froehlich, Robert A. 

Free Software Catalog and Directory, The 
reviewed, (Mar)85-86 
FTNT14.COM, (Feb)42 
Future Developments (Martin), (Dec)75 

Gallagher, Susan, illustrations by, (Jan)31, (Feb)fc 

Galway Project, Kaypro use, (Mar)36 


Adventure, (Mar)19-21 

AIRPORT (The Software Toolworks), (Jan)21 

as learning tools, (Sep)33 

MYCHESS (The Software Toolworks). (Jan)20-21 
Gamma DC/UPS (Gamma) 

uninterruptible power supply, (Jan)48 
Garcia, Manuel, illustrations by, (Oct)fc 
GASNETfa BBS), (Jan)27-28, (Feb)40 
Geary, Rick 

illustrations by, (Jan)fc, (Feb)47, (Mar)47, (Jun)42, /50, 

(Jul/Aug)32, 33, 34. 36, (Sep)fc, 26 
Gemini printers, WordStar installation, (Jan)15 
Gengle, Dean, The Netweaver's Sourcebook, (Dec)75 
Getting the Most from WordStar and MailMerge: Things MicroPro 

Never Told You (Stone), reviewed, (May)68-70 
ghost characters. (Dec)51 

gift ideas, (Jan)30-33, ctrfold a-d, (Nov)39-44, (Dec)34-35, 46 
Gil Berry's Simi RBBS, (Feb)40 

Glidden, Robert (President, Perfect Software), (Feb)48 
Golding, Paul 

Screensmarts, (Jul/Aug)65 

computer misuse, (Feb)14 

see also Tcimpidis case 
Gowar, Rex, photographs by, (Jun)37, 38 
Graham Correctional Center (IL), Kaypro use, (Mar)38 
graphics program 

Data Plotter (Lark Software). (Apr)72-78 
Grassroots International 

Third World technology projects, (Jun)30 

bulletin board, (Feb)40 

Kaypro use, (Mar)34. (Mar)35 
Grimm, Dave (David) 

illustrations by, (Jan)39, (Mar)33, (May)31 

handicapped persons, computer use, (Feb)51-59 
hard disks 

backup programs compared, (Feb)66-70, (May)7-8 

upgrades, (Oct)49-52 
HBBS Mog-Ur's, see Mog-Ur, The 
Heiser, Paul W. 

Mastering dBase II the Easy Way, (Jan)20 
herd management. Kaypro use, (Mar)38 
hexadecimal number system. (Sep)82 

explained, (Jul/Aug)35 
Higgins, David 

Program Design and Construction, (Oct)28 
home control systems, (Mar)74 

see also analog-to-digital conversions systems 
hospitals, Kaypro use, (Mar)36 
Houze, William, see Lenfest, David 
How to Design & Deliver a Speech, Third Edition (Fletcher), (Mar)14 

human rights organizations, Kaypro use, (Jun)36-40, 73 
Humor and Wisdom (a BBS), (Feb)40, (Apr)25-26 
humpback whales, see whale research 
Hunter, Bruce 

Understanding C, (Oct)42 
Hyams, Peter (director, 201 0) 

Kaypro use, (Apr)33 
Hypertyper (Summit Software Corp.), reviewed, (Sep)55 


code conversion, (Sep)12 
IBM PC Public Domain Software, (Dec)75 
income taxes 

bulletin boards, (Apr)28 

software reviewed, (Apr)48-52 
index generation, (Jan)71-76 
Individual Investor (a BBS), (Dec)17 
Indonesian bulletin boards, (Jun)26 
Infoline(aBBS), (Mar)57 

information retrieval, see bibliographic databases; on-line databases 
information sources, (Dec)17-20, 70 
Infosystems, described, (Nov)69 
Ing, Dean (writer), Kaypro use, (Apr)35 
Instant Install (Computer Insights), reviewed, (Dec)51-52 
Interactive Structures 

printer buffers, (Jan)35-36 
Intercultural Network, online education, (Sep)17 
interfacing, see printers; RS-232 
internal modem (Datasolvers, Inc.), (Jan)ctrfold d 
International Asso. for Cryptologic Research (a BBS), (Dec) 1 8 
international telecommunications, (Jun)24-27 
International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT), 

I/O, redirection, MS-DOS, (Dec)71 

JADA Teleport System (a BBS), (Jun)27 
Jamaican Memory Bank Project, (Jun)33 
Japanese bulletin boards, (Jun)27 
JAPAN Mai-Kon Club (a BBS), (Jun)27 
Jeddah RBBS (Saudi Arabia), (Jun)25 
Juki printers 
6100 printer 
alternative brands of ribbons, (Jun)1 1 
Diablo 630 emulation, (Jan)13-14 
jammed ribbons, (Mar) 10 
printwheel catalog, (Jul/Aug)80 
printwheels, (Jan)13-14, (Feb)13 
proportional printing, (Jul/Aug)10 
WordStar installation, (Jul/Aug)46 
WordStar patches, (Apr)85, 89 
6300 printer 

ribbon jamming, (Jul/Aug)80 
margin offset problems, (Sep)84 
tractor feed problems, (Jul/Aug)80 
Juki Type Style Guide for 6300 and 61 00 Printers (Juki Office 
Machine Corp.). (Jul/Aug)80 


hard disk backup, (Feb)67-68 
Kauai RBBS, (Feb)40 
KAY* FOG (a BBS), (Jun)22 
Kaypro 2 

1 2 volt DC power supply, (Mar)1 3 

clock speed upgrade 
product review, (Jan)51-56 

CP/M+ upgrade, (Feb) 1 2- 1 3 

disk drive upgrade, (Feb)10 

disk exchange with other Kaypros, (Feb)10-1 1 

Kaypro 2-84, (Jan)14 

power consumption, (Mar)12 

serial port pinouts, (Mar)83 

startup surge, (Mar) 12 
Kaypro 2-84 

heating problem, (Dec)8 

Kaypro 2, (Jan) 14 

power consumption, (Mar) 1 2 

serial port pinouts, (Mar)83 

startup surge, (Mar)12 
Kaypro 2x 

early models, (May) 11 

power consumption, (Mar)12 

68 Profiles 


Subject Index • 1985 

Kaypro 2x (continued) 

single-sided disk formatting, (Feb)10-1 1 

startup surge, (Mar) 12 
Kaypro 4 

clock speed upgrade 
product review, (Jan}51-56 

Kaypro 4-84, (Jan)14 

power consumption, (Mar) 12 

serial port pinouts, (Mar)83 

startup surge, (Mar)12 

WordStar auto-log on to B:, (May)50-53 
Kaypro 4-84 

fan problem, (Jun) 10 

Kaypro 2, (Jan)14 

power consumption, (Mar)12 

system utility writing, (Jun)10 
Kaypro 10 

colored disks 
formatting problems, (Jan)83-85 

fan filters, (Sep)13 

hard disk backup programs, (Feb)66-70, (May)7-8 

MS-DOS upgrade, (Apr) 12 

power consumption, (Mar)12 

serial port pinouts, (Mar)83 

startup surge, (Mar)12 
Kaypro 16 

newsletter available, (Apr)90 

power consumption, (Mar)12 

previewed, (Feb)74-79 

startup surge, (Mar-)12 

video problems, (Jun)1 1 

WordStar patching, (Jul/Aug)33 
Kaypro 286i 

described, (Jul/Aug)68-71 

introduced, (May)59 

speed benchmark tests, (Jul/Aug)70, (Jul/Aug)71 

WordStar patching, (Jul/Aug)33 
Kaypro 2000 

introduced, (Jun)66 
Kaypro computers 

1983 and 1984 series compared, (Jan) 14, (May)65-66 

1984 series, (May) 11 

video characteristics, (Jun)68, (Jun)69 

8-bit to 16-bit upgrade, (May)10 

agriculture, (Mar)54-59 

Apple computer incompatibility, (Jun) 10 

Argentina's missing persons, (Jun)36-40, 73 

auto-run files, (Jun)69 

"banked" memory, (Feb)12-13 


cursor blinking, (Jun)68, (Jun)69 

DC power supply, (Mar)13 

diverse uses, (Mar)32-38 

famous users, (Apr)32-39 

gift ideas, (Jan)30-33, ctrfold a-d, (Nov)39-44, (Dec)34-35, 46 

hard disk upgrade, (Oct)49-52 

inside of, (Nov)59-61 

internal modems, Kermit, (Dec)8 

moisture, (Jul/Aug)76 

MS-DOS upgrade, (Apr) 12 


public speaking, (Mar)46-52 

real-time clock program, (Oct)'IO 

redirecting console output, (Mar) 11 

reset button relocation, (Apr)15 

screen care, (Jul/Aug)75 

startup surge, (Mar) 12 

static electricity, (Jul/Aug)75 

surge protection, (Jul/Aug)75 

Third World use, (Jun)30-34 

tilted screen characters, (Sep)84 

universal ROM, (May)65 

ventilation, (Jul/Aug)75 

whale research, (Mar)40-44 
Kaypro Corporation 

new products, (Nov) 10 
Kaypro International Grants Program, (Jun)30-34 

Argentina's missing persons, (Jun)36-40, 73 
Kaypro letter quality printer, see Juki printers, 61 00 
KAYPROLRN. (Oct)8, 10 
Kaypro Professional Computer (KPC), introduced, (Dec)68 

Kaypro National Users' Group BBS, (Jun)24 

phone number corrected, (Sep)6 
Kaypro Raincoat (Ideaco), (Nov)44 
Kaypro Robie 

serial port pinouts, (Mar)83 
Kaypro Users Genealogy Interest Group (KUGIG), (Jan)94 
Kaypro Users Group (KUG), (Jan)94 
Kaypro Word Processing Plain and Simple (TAB Books), (Nov)44 

reviewed, (Jun)72 
KBAR (Data Decisions) 

reviewed, (Feb)67-70 
author responds, (May)7-8 
manufacturer responds, (May)7 
Keller, Casey (editor, Love Boat) 

Kaypro use. (Apr)32-33 
Kelp Bed (a BBS), (Feb)40 
Kenya Ministry of Finance and Planning 

Kaypro use, (Mar)36 
Kermit, (Feb)41 

Kaypro internal modems, (Dec)8 
Kernighan, Brian 

C Programming Language, The, (Oct)39, 42 

Software Tools, (Oct)40-41 
keyboard encoder, (Nov)61 
keypad redefinition, see programmable keys 
Keys Please (Computer Insights), reviewed,, (Dec)51-52 
Kidder, Tracy, Soul of a New Machine, (Dec)75 
King Crab Development Project, Kaypro use, (Mar)37 
Kinn, Milo, illustrations by, (Apr)39 
Kitchell, Joyce 

illustrations by, (Jan)20, 24, 26, (Feb)14, 18, 24, 

(Mar)14, 18, 22, 26, (Abr)fc, 14, 18, 22, 24 

(Jul/Aug)62, (Sep)52 
Kleertex Templates (Creative Computer Products), (Dec)35, 46 
K-NET84, (Jul/Aug)72-73 

reviewed, (Dec)57 
KUG, see Kaypro Users Group 
KUGIG, see Kaypro Users Genealogy Interest Group 
Kuhn, Bonnie, technical illustrations by, (Sep)60 

labor unions 

telecommuting, (May)27-28, 36-37 
Lafore, Robert, see Waite, Michael 
Language Tutor (Telion Software) 

described, (Sep)32 
Laurie, Peter, The Joy of Computers, (Dec)75 
Lawton, William S. 

photographs by, (Mar)fc, 41 
Lee, John D. 

WordStar and CP/M Made Easy, (Jan) 1 7 
Lenfest, David 

Kaypro Word Processing Plain and Simple, (Jun)72 
Let's Have Fun Comparing (Resource Software International) 

described, (Sep)28 
Let's Have Fun Counting (Resource Software International) 

described, (Sep)28 
Letters and Language (Advent Products) 

described, (Sep)28 
Library of Congress, National Referral Center, (Dec) 17 
Lindner, Charles (attorney) 

Tcimpidiscase, (Feb)29-36, 87, (Apr)68 
line filters, see power conditioners 
Literaria RBBS, (Feb)40 
little Accountant That Can, The (The Little Software That Can Company), 


reviewed, (Nov)55 
livestock management, see agriculture 
LOCK.COM, (Mar)23 
Logan Square RCP/M, (Feb)40 

educational software, (Sep)27 
Los Angeles City Attorney's Office 

Tcimpidis case, (Feb)28-30, 36, 87 
dismissed, (Apr)68 
Los Angeles Police Department 

Tcimpidis case, (Feb)28-36, 87 
Los Angeles Raiders, Kaypro use, 
Lotus 1-2-3 (Lotus Development) 

Co-Power-88, (Feb)76 


January 69 


Subject Index • 1985 

Machines Who Think (McCorduck). (Dec)74 
Maclnker (Computer Friends), (Nov)43 
MagiKey (PRO Microsystems) 

reviewed, (Dec)52-53 
MailMerge (MicroPro) 

book reviewed, (May)68-70 
mainboard, (Nov)59 
mainframe computers 

Kermit, (Dec)8 
MAKE.COM, (Apr)22-23, 86-87 
Management Simulator (Dyncomp) 

described, (Sep)32 
MAPIT (Questionnaire Service Co.), (Nov)41 
Martin, James 
Future Developments, (Dec)75 
Telematic Society, (Dec)75 
MasterCom (The Software Store), (Nov)40 
Master Drill (Dynacomp) 
described, (Sep)29, 32 
Mastering dBase II the Easy Way (Heiser), (Jan)20 
mathematical symbols 

printing, (Jun)54-56, 60 
mathematic computations, (May)42-48, 58 
Math' (Writing Consultants) 

reviewed, (Apr)62-63, 66-67 
Max, The (Panamax) 

power back-up system, (Jan)48 
MBASIC Handbook, The (Ettlin), reviewed, (Jun)71-72 
MBASIC (Microsoft) 
code conversion, (Sep)11-12 
line length limitation, (Mar)12-13 
mathematic computations, (May)42-48, 58 
pattern recognition program, (Mar)41 
program listing 
amortization, (May)46 
amortization table, (May)47 
daily compound interest, (May)45 
data acquisition and device control, (Mar)91 
Turbo Pascal command cross-reference, (Oct)29 
Turbo Pascal comparision, (Oct)25-27 

recommended reading, (Oct)28 
see also BASIC; SBASIC 
MBBS Headquarters, (Feb)40 
MBBS, reviewed, (Dec)57 
MC6845 CRT controller chip, (Jun)68 
MCAT.COM, (Feb)24-25 

McCorduck, Pamela, Machines Who Think, (Dec)74 
McGraw-Hill Books (a BBS), (Feb)40 

board closed, (Mar)9 
McKay, Derek (Plu* Perfect Software), (Feb)46, 49, (Jun)16 
MDM740.COM, (Feb)41, (Apr)42-43,45 
Meadowlark (a BBS), (Feb)40 
Medecins Sans Frontieres, (Jun)32 
Memory Minder (J&M Systems), reviewed, (Sep)69-70 
Memory (Telion Software) 

described, (Sep)32 
Mercury (Computer Friends), (Nov)42 
MEX1 12.COM, (Feb)41, (Apr)43-44, 45 
Michie, Donald, The Knowledge Machine - Artificial Intelligence and the 

Future of Man, (Dec)74 
Micro Care Kit (Computr Perfect), (Nov)44 
Micro C Kaypro Disk K1 8 (Micro Cornucopia) 

reviewed. (Sep)71 
Micro Cornucopia, (Jan)24 

Microfazer Print Buffer, see Quadram Corporation, printer buffers 
Micro MarketWorld, described, (Nov)71 
Micro-Perf (Nebs Computer Forms), (Dec)3 
MicroPro Technical Support Manual (MicroPro), (Apr)84 
MicroSpooler (Consolink Corp.), (Jan)36, (Nov)43 
Microstat (Ecosoft) 

reviewed, (Mar)61-65 
Micro Tax CLR (Microcomputer Tax Systems) 

reviewed, (Apr)51 
Millionaire, The (Blue Chip Software) 
CP/M format discontinued, (Feb) 1 3 
Minds Over Matter— A New Look at Artificial Intelligence (Rothfeder), 

Mini-Ledger (Paradigm Consultants) 

reviewed, (Nov)52 
Mini-MicroSystems, described, (Nov)69 
Minuteman, The (Para Systems) 
uninterruptible power supply, (Jan)48 

Missouri Botantical Garden, Kaypro use, (Mar)35 
MITE (Mycroft Labs) 

Kaypro 16, (Feb)78 
MIXIT Ration Balancing (Agricultural Software Consultants), (Mar)56 
MODEM7, (Apr)45 
MODEM903, (Apr)45 
ModemMail (AutoSoff) 

described, (Nov)14-15 

brand name listing, (Jan)43-44 

dual-standard, (Jun)24 

government regulation, (Feb)14 

international communications standards, (Jun)24-27 

manufacturer addresses, (Jan)80 

misuse of, (Feb) 14 

selection of, (Jan)38-39, 42-45, 80 

Tcimpidis case, (Feb)28-36, 87, (Apr)68 

see also bulletin boards; RS-232; telecommunications 
Modem Timesfa BBS), (Jul/Aug)18 
Modern Office Technology, described, (Nov)69-70 
Modern Structured Programming (Schneyer), (Oct)28 
Mog-Ur, The (a BBS), (Feb)40, (Apr)24-25 

Tcimpidis case, (Feb)28-36, 87 
dismissed, (Apr)68 
Mondale, Walter, Kaypro use by staff, (Mar)38 
MOVE.COM, (Apr)23, 86 
MPC Peripherals Corporation 

printer buffers, (Jan)36 

CP/M comparison, (Jan) 68-70 

directories, (Dec)71 
commands, (Oct)74 
named, (Oct)7 1,74 

I/O redirection, (Dec)71 

Kaypro upgrade, (Apr) 12 

named directories, (Nov)64 

pathnames, (Oct)74, (Nov)64 

pipes, (Dec)71 

ROOT directory, (Nov)64 

user-defined search path, (Nov)64, 66 

hard disk backup, (Feb)67-68, 70 
MultiModem (Multi Tech Svstems. Inc.l. fNovl42 
MW-1 00K (Micro R 8c D Inc.), (Nov)43 
MYCHESS (The Software Toolworks), (Jan)20-21 
MYKEY.COM, (Mar)23 

named directories, (Oct)71, 74, (Nov)64, (Dec)71 
National Alliance of Home-Based Businesswomen (NAHBB), (May)38 
National Association for the Cottage Industry (NACI), (May)38 
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (database), (Dec)20 
National Education Corporation 

online education, (Sep)17-18 
National Football League Players Association, The 

Kaypro use, (Mar)34 
National Meteorological Center, climate database, (Dec) 1 9 
National Referral Center (NRS)„ (Dec)17 
National Scholastic Surfing Association 

Kaypro use, (Mar)34 
New England Science Fiction Association (Nesfa), (Mar) 18 
new products, (Jan)86-93, (Feb)82-85, (Mar)87-93, (Apr)90-93 

(May)73-77, (Jun)74-76, (Jul/Aug)82-84, (Sep)86-88, (Oct)75-77 
newsletters, starting one, (Jan)24-25 
Newsweep programs 

hard disk backup, (Feb)67-68 

NSWP207.COM, (Feb)41 
NewWord (NewStar) 

reviewed, (Feb) 18-22 

screen refresh, (Dec)51 
Notebook (Pro/Tern) 

reviewed, (Jan)60 
Notebook, The (a BBS), (Jan)26-27, (Jul/Aug)18-19 
NSWP207.COM, see Newsweep programs 
NSWP.COM, see Newsweep programs ' 
NULL.COM, (Feb)24 
Numbers and Math (Advent Products) 

described, (Sep)28 
Nutribytes (Public Interest Software), (Sep)28 
NWA Statpak (Northwest Analytical) 

reviewed, (Mar)61-66 

70 Profiles 


Subject Index • 1985 

OCRs, see optical character readers 
Office Assistant (Micrometrics), (Nov)41 
Office Systems 85, described, (Nov)68 
Old Colorado City (a BBS), (Jan)28, (Feb)8 1 
Olympia printers 

WordStar installation, (Jan)12-13 
on-line databases 

free information sources, (Dec) 17-20, 70 

professional searchers, (Jan)1 

searching, (Jan)8-10 

see also bibliographic databases 
operating systems 

overview of, (Jan)66-70 
optical character readers 

use by disabled persons, (Feb)58 
"Original Chocolate Byte" (Chocolate Software Co.), (Jan)ctrfold d, 

Orthopedic Bio-engineering Lab (Univ. of Utah) 

Kaypro use, (Mar)38 
O'Shaugnessy, Stephanie, paper sculpture by, (Nov)48 
outline processor, public domain, (Sep)21-22, 79 
Oxgate-dBase II (a BBS), (Feb)8 1 

Pacific Bell 

Tcimpidis case, (Feb)28-36, 87 
dismissed, (Apr)68 * 
PACOM BBS, (Jun)26 
Paris-Dakar Rally, Kaypro use, (Mar)38 
Pascal, see Turbo Pascal 

Pasco/ for BASIC Programmers (Seiter), reviewed, (Oct)28, 46 
Pascal from BASIC (Brown), reviewed, (Oct)28, 46 
Pascal gift pack (Borland International), (Jan)ctrfold d 
Patch18a.COM, (Oct)22 
Pat Vac (a BBS), (Feb)81 

PC-DocuMate (Systems Management Asso.), (Dec)35, 46 
PC Products, described, (Nov)70 
Peace Corps 

Kaypro computer use, (Jun)32 
Peat, F. David, Artificial Intelligence: How Machines Think, (Dec)74 
Peck, Everett, illustrations by, (May)fc 
People v, Tcimpidis, see Tcimpidis, Tom 
Perfect Calc (Perfect Software/Thorn EMI) 

bookkeeping program, (Nov)36-38, 74 

clock speed upgrade, (Jan)56 

trend line forecasting, (Dec)38-39, 42-44 

version 2.0 
older versions compared, (Jun)51 
reviewed, (Jun)51-52 
Perfect Filer (Perfect Software/Thorn EMI) 

patch current date, (Oct)8 

version 2.0 
reviewed, (Jun)52, 64-65 
Perfect Link (Perfect Software/Thorn EMI), (Jun)65 
Perfect Software 

purchased by Thorn EMI, (Jan)"l2 

Thorn EMI upgrades, (Jan)86 
Perfect Writer (Perfect Software/Thorn EMI) 

bibliography program, (Jan)59-60 

index generation, (Jan)71-76 

new version announced, (Jan)12 

screenplay writing, (Jul/Aug)65 

screen refresh, (Dec)51 

version 2.0 
reviewed, (Jun)43-48, 67, 70 
version 1.20 comparison, (Jun)44-45 
WordStar 3.3 comparison, (Jun)44-45 
phone attachment (Microperipherals Corp.), (Jan)ctrfold c 
Physician's Responsive Information System (a BBS), (Feb)81 
Piece ofKayke National Newsletter, (Jan)24 

hard disk backup, (Feb)67 
pipes, MS-DOS, (Dec)71 
Plato's Homelink Network (Control Data Corp.) 

online education, (Sep)78 
Plauger, P. J., see Kernighan, Brian 
PLUTO (Southwest Data Systems, Inc.), (May)75, (Nov)41 
political campaigns, Kaypro use, (Mar)38 
Porta-Micro Mate (SOS Marketing), (Nov)44 

power back-up system, (Jan)48 
Potpourri (a BBS), (Jul/Aug)41, (Oct)15, 23 

phone number corrected, (Sep)6 

Pournelle, Jerry (writer), Kaypro use, (Apr)34 
Powell, Doug, illustrations by, (Nov)39, (Dec)34 
power back-up systems, described, (Jan)47-48 
power conditioners 
Kaypro computer power consumption, (Mar)1 1-1 2 
need for, (Jan)46-48 
surge suppressors (Jan)48 
PowerMAX (Panamax), (Jan)ctrfold d 
Powers, Ron, photographs by, (Jul/Aug)69 
Practical Peripherals, printer buffers, (Jan)35-36 
Printer Character Set (Woodsmith Software) 

reviewed, (Jun)55-56, 77 
Printer Muffler (Microsphere, Inc.), (Nov)43 
buffers, (Jan)34-36 
dot matrix 

printing alternate character sets, (Jun)54-56, 60 
parallel interfacing, (Mar)78 
proportional printing, (Jul/Aug) 10 
ribbon reinking, (Apr)10 
serial interfacing, (Mar)78, 82 

recommended reading, (Mar)83 
WordStar patches, (Apr)85, (Jul/Aug)46 
Print Head Cleaning Kit (Nebs Computer Forms), (Dec)35, 46 
Privacy Transfer (Quadravoice, Inc.), (Nov)41 
process control, see analog-to-digital conversion 
Pro-Corn Database (a BBS), (Feb)81, (Jun)24 
Professor 3T (Software Academy) 

described, (Sep)29 
PRO/FILE (Systems Peripherals Consultants), (Nov)42 
PROFORTH (Micro Horizons), (Nov)41 
Pro-Gram, (Jan)24 

Program Design and Construction (Higgins), (Oct)28 
program listings 
amortization (MBASIC), (May)46 
amortization table (MBASIC), (May)47 
bubble sort (SBASIC), (Oct)33 
daily compound interest (MBASIC), (May)45 
data acquisition and device control (MBASIC), (Mar)91 
dot command elimination (C Langauge), (Oct)42 
quicksort (SBASIC), (Oct)34 
real-time clock access (dBase II), (Apr)54-59 
shell sort (SBASIC), (Oct)33 
Sieve of Eratosthenes (BASIC), (Jan)54 
Turbo Pascal examples, (Oct)26-27 
word count (C Langauge), (Oct)41 
programmable keys 
keypad reconfiguration, (Jan)62 
programs reviewed, (Dec)49-54, 60 

WordStar applications, (May)20-22, (Jun)20-22, (Dec)12-16 

BASICS compared, (Jan)22 
see also specific langauges 
Pro-Key (RoseSoft, Inc.) 

screenplay writing, (Jul/Aug)64-65 
proportional printing, see printers 
protocol, XMODEM, (Apr)44-45 
public domain software 
acquiring, (Feb)42-43, 59 
book reviewed, (Mar)85-86 
communications programs, (Apr)42-45 
directory programs, (Feb)25-26 
disk cataloging utilities, (Feb)24-25 
disk editors, (Sep)59-64,(Oct)18, 22,54-60 
encryption program, (Mar)23 
explained, (Feb)41-42 

file handling utilities, (Feb)8, (Apr)22-23, 86-87 
hard disk backup programs, (Feb)67-68, 70 
outline processor, (Sep)21-22, 79 
selecting, (Feb)43 
touch typing program, (Sep)53-54 
word processing aids, (Mar)22-24, (Sep)20-21 
public speaking 

Kaypro computer use, (Mar)46-52 
publishing, newsletters, (Jan)24-25 

see also electronic publishing 
Push & Pop, (Jan)24 

Q/C compiler (The Code Works), (Oct)40, 46 
Quadram Corporation 
printer buffers, (Jan)35-36 

January 71 


Subject Index • 1985 

Quick Check Plus (Chuck Atkinson Programs) 

reviewed, (Nov)52-54 
quicksort, (Oct)33-36 

radiation emissions, CRTs, (Sep) 10 
Rags to Riches (Chang Labs), (Nov)40 

reviewed, (Nov)51-52 
RAM, see random access memory 
RAM-resident programs, (Nov)2D 
random access memory (RAM), (Nov)60 
RBBS v3.7, reviewed, (Dec)57-59 
RCP/M CBBS MICOM (a BBS), (Jun)26 
RCP/Ms, see bulletin boards 
RCP/M Software Tools (a BBS), (Jun)26 
read only memory (ROM), (Nov)60 
RecycleNet (a BBS), (Dec) 17-18 
Reed, James, photographs by, (Jul/Aug)66 
reference citation programs, (Jan)58-60 
reference databases, (Dec) 17- 19, 70 
Reindeer Herders Association, (Mar)38 
Rembrandt (Spectre Technologies), (Nov)41 

artificial intelligence books, (Dec)74 

CP/M and the Personal Computer (Dwyer), (Ocf)64-65 

CP/M Programmer's Enc yclopedia (Brigham), (Oct)65-66 

Free Software Catalog and Directory, The (Froehlich), (Mar)85-86 

Getting the Most from WordStar and MailMerge: Things MicroPro 
Never Told You (Stone), (May)68-70 

gift books, (Dec)75 

Kaypro Word Processing Plain and Simple (Lenfest), (Jun)72 

MBASIC Handbook, The (Ettlin), (Jun)71-72 

Pascal for BASIC Programmers (Seiter), (Oct)28, 46 

Pascal from BASIC (Brown), (Ocf)28, 46 

Soul of CP/M (Waite), (Oct)65 

WordStar Magic (Silvia), (Jun)72 

Kaypro 16 (Kaypro Corporation), (Feb)74-79 

Kaypro 286i (Kaypro Corporation), (Jul/Aug)68-71 

Turboboard (Advent Products, Inc.), (Jan)51-56 

business/computer publications, (Nov)68-73 

ABstat (Anderson-Bell), (Mar)60-63 

Accounting for Micros (James River Group), (Nov)50-51 

AIRPORT (The Software Toolworks), (Jan)21 

Backgrounder (Plu 'Perfect Systems), (Jun)1 7-18, (Dec)49-51 

Bibliography (Pro/Tern), (Jan)59-60 

Character Design Kit (Woodsmith Software), (Jun)55-56, 77 

Chartech (Techware), (Jun)54-55, 77 

Checks & Balances (CDE Software), (Apr) 18-21, (Nov)52 

College Board SAT Preparation Series (Krell), (Sep)36-37, 74 

College Board Score Builder (Resource Software International), 
(Sep)36-37, 74 

CP/M2.2E (Plu* Perfect Systems), (Jun)16-17 

CPI (Computer Professionals Inc.), (Nov)50 

Cubbyhole (TSK Inc.), (Nov)54 

Data Plotter (Lark Software), (Apr)72-78 

DateStamper (Plu "Perfect Systems), (Jun)18 

Desktop Accountant (Rocky Mountain Software). (Nov)50 

Disk Drive Diagnostic Kit (Sheepshead Software), (Sep)70-7 1 

EATYPE (Micro Cornucopia), (Sep)53-54 

educational programs, (Sep)28-29, 32, 83 

Fancy Font (SoftCraft), (Jun)56, 60, 77 

FASTBACK (Ebert), (Feb)67-68, 70 

Feature Format (PowerSoft), (Jul/Aug)63-65 
price correction, (Oct)7 

FidoNet, (Nov) 16- 17 

Financial Filer (Woodsmith Software), (Nov)54 

Footnote (Pro/Tern), (Jan)58-59 

Hypertyper (Summit Software Corp.), (Sep)55 

Instant Install (Computer Insights), (Dec)51-52 

KBAR (Data Decisions), (Feb)67-68, 70 
author responds, (May)7-8 
manufacturer responds, (May)7 

Keys Please (Computer Insights), (Dec)51-52 

Little Accountant That Can, The (The Little Software That Can Com- 
pany), (Nov)55 

MagiKey(PRO Microsystems), (Dec)52-53 

Math ' (Writing Consultants), (Apr)62-63, 66-67 

Memory Minder (J&M Systems), (Sep)69-70 

Micro C Kaypro Disk K1 8 (Micro Cornucopia), (Sep)71 

reviews (continued) 
software (continued] 

Microstat(Ecosoft), (Mar)61-65 

Micro Tax CLR (Microcomputer Tax Systems), (Apr)51 

Mini-Ledger (Paradigm Consultants), (Nov)52 

ModemMail (AutoSoft), (Nov)14-15 

MYCHESS (The Software Toolworks), (Jan)20-21 

NewWord (NewStar), (Feb)18-22 

Notebook (Pro/Tern), (Jan)60 

NWA Statpak (Northwest Analytical), (Mar)61-66 

Perfect Calc (Perfect Software/Thorn EMI), (Jun)51-52 

Perfect Filer (Perfect Software/Thorn EMI), (Jun)52, 64-65 

Perfect Link (Perfect Software/Thorn EMI), (Jun)65 

Perfect Writer (Perfect Software/Thorn EMI), (Jun)43-48, 67, 70 

Printer Character Set (Woodsmith Software), (Jun)55-56, 77 

Quick Check Plus (Chuck Atkinson Programs), (Nov)52-54 

Rags to Riches (Chang Labs), (Nov)51-52 

RCPM software, (Dec)56-59 

SBAcount (Micro Art Programmers, (Nov) 51-52 

SmartPrint II+ (Software Research Technologies), (Jun)56, 77 

StatPac (Walonick Associates), (Mar)61-64 

Systat (Systat), (Mar)61-63, 66-67 

TAXCALC84 (Southwest Computing), (Apr)50-51 

Taxware (Taxware Systems), (Apr)51-52 

Touch 'n' Go (Caxton Software), (Sep)54-55 

Touchtyp (Micro-Art Programmers), (Sep)55 

TYPE1 (Wildriver Software), (Sep)54 

Write-Hand-Man (Poor Person Software), (Nov)20-23 

XScreen (Xpert Software), (Dec)54, 60 

XtraKey (Xpert Software), (Dec)54, 60 

ZCPR3 (Echelon), (May) 16- 18 

Z-System (Echelon), (Dec)24-27, 30, 32 
REWTEL (a BBS), (Jun)26 
ribbon reinking, (Apr)10 
Ritchie, Dennis, see Kemighan, Brian 
robots, use by the disabled, (Feb)55 
Roddenberry, Gene, Kaypro use, (Apr)32 

rolltop diskette storage (Microcomputer Accessories), (Jan)ctrfold b 
ROM, see read only memory 

ROS (Remote Operating System) v3.3, reviewed, (Dec)59 
Rothfeder, Jeffrey, Minds Over Matter-A New Look at Artificial Intelligence, 

data acquisition, (Mar)69-70 
Kaypro port pinouts, (Mar)83 
printer interfacing, (Mar)78, 82-83 
recommended reading, (Maij83 
RS-232 Made Easy (Seyer), (Mar)83 
RS-232 Solution, The (Campbell), (Mar)83 
Rutgers University, Microlab (a BBS), (Feb)81 

Safe-Strip Surge Protector (Curtis Manufacturing), (Nov42, (Dec)35, 46 
Sanders, Steve (sysop Data Com Network) 

San Diego Computer Society Disabled Interest Group (DIGSIG), (Feb)51-59 
San Francisco Kaypro Users Group, (Feb)49 

contact person, (Mar)9 

profiled, (Jul/Aug)66-67, 72 
SAT, see Scholastic Aptitude Test 
Satellite-Cable TV Network (a BBS), (Dec)18 
SBAcount (Micro Art Programmers), reviewed, (Nov)54 
SBASIC (Topaz Programming) 

program listings 
bubble sort, (Oct)33 
quicksort, (Oct)34 
shell sort, (Oct)33 

see also BASIC; MBASIC 
Schneyer, R. 

Modem Structured Programming, (Oct)28 
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), see also education 

preparation programs, (Sep)35-37, 74 
science fiction writers, Kaypro use, (Apr)34 
screen dump program 

XSCREEN (Xpert Software), (Apr)89 
screenplay writing 

programs described, (Jul/Aug)63-65 

recommended reading, (Jul/Aug)65 
Screensmarts (Golding), (Jul/Aug)65 
Screenwipe (Aldine Paper Co.), (Nov)44 

Screenwriting Made Easy/WordStar for the Screenwriter (Brown), (Jul/ 

72 Profiles 


Subject Index • 1985 

Scriptor (Screenplay Systems) 

described, (Jul/Aug)63-65 
SD.COM, (Feb)25-26, 41 

The Second Self— Computers and the Human Spirit (Turkle), (Dec)74 
security modem (Lockheed-Georgia Co.), (Jan)ctrfold c 
Self-Inking Printer Ribbon (Controlled Printout Devices), (Nov)43 
Seyer, Martin D. 

RS-232 Made Easy, (Mar)83 
"Shades of WordStar" (Ezzard), (Jun)22 
shell sort, (Oct)33 

Shufflebuffer, see Interactive Structures, printer buffers 
Sieve of Eratosthenes, (Jan)52, 54 

SIG/M, see Special Interest Group for Microcomputers, The 
Signalman Lightning (Anchor Automation), (Nov)42 
Silvia, Peter 

WordStar Magic. (Jun)72 
SIMMS 001 : Network Headquarters (a BBS), (Feb)81 
Simons, Geoff 

The Biology of Computer Life, (Dec)74 

Computer Bits and Pieces, (Dec)75 
ski lift ticketing system, Kaypro use, (Mar)37 
Skill Builder series (American Training International) 

described, (Sep)29 
Small-C. (Oct)40 
SmartKey (Software Research Technologies), (Nov)41 

reviewed, (Dec)53-54 

screenplay writing, (Jul/Aug)64-65 
SmartPrint II+ (Software Research Technologies) 

reviewed, (Jun)56, 77 
Smithsonian Institution 

database searching, (Dec)20, 70 

Kaypro use, (Mar)37 
Smith, Terry, illustrations by, (Sep)34 
Smokin' Silicon (a BBS), (Jul/Aug)41 
SODU.COM, (Oct)1 8, 22 
software reviews, see reviews 
Software Tools (Kernighan), (Oct)40-41 
Solberg, Gregory, see Ettlin, Walter A. 
Soledad State Prison (CA), Kaypro use, (Mar)38 
sorting algorithms, (Oct)32-36 
Soul of a New Machine (Kidder), (Dec)75 
Sou/of CP/M(Waite), reviewed, (Oct)65 
Source, The 

electronic publishing, (Jul/Aug)19 
"Space Chips" (Science Fiction Writers of America), (Apr)34 
Special Interest Group for Microcomputers, The (SIG/M), (Feb)42, 59 
speech recognition devices, (Feb)55, 57-58 
speech writing, see public speaking 
speed up kits, see clock speed u pgrade 
Spell Master (Dynacomp), described, (Sep)32 
Spell-So-Well (Edu-Kids Software), (Nov)41 
Spikemaster (Discwasher) 

power back-up system, (Jan)48 
Spinrad, Norman (writer), Kaypro use, (Apr)35-36 
SQ/USQ.COM, (Mar)23 
static electricity, (Jul/Aug)75 
statistical software 

MS-DOS versions, (Mar)67 

reviewed, (Mar)60-67 
StatPac (Walonick Associates), (Mar)61-64, (Nov)40 
Stein, Debra, illustrations by, (Oct)55, (Nov)28 
Stone, David 

Getting the Most from WordStar and MailMerge: Things MicroPro Never 
Told You 

reviewed, (May)68-70 
Saudi Arabia (a BBS), (Feb) 81 
sub-directories, see named directories 

designing submit files, (Jul/Aug)55-60 
Successful Farming Magazine, (Mar)58 
Sun City FIDO (a BBS), (Jun)27 
SuperCamp, Kaypro use, (Mar)35 
SuperFile (Software Marketing Assoc), (Nov)40 
SuperZap.COM, (Oct) 18, 22 
surge protection, (Jul/Aug)75 
Surge Sentry (RKS Industries) 

power back-up system, (Jan)48 
surge suppressors, see power conditioners 
Swedish bulletin boards, (Jun)27 
SWEEP.COM, see Newsweep program 
SWP co-processor, see Co-Power-88 (SWP) 
symbols, printing, (Jun)54-56, 60 

Systat (Systat) 

reviewed, (Mar)61-63, 66-67 
Systems Diagnostics Disk (Micro Cornucopia), (Dec)35, 46 

Tampa Bay Kaypro Users Group, (Jul/Aug)66-67, 72 

ZCPR3, (Dec)30 

code conversion, (Sep)12 
TAXCALC84 (Southwest Computing) 

reviewed, (Apr)50-51 
taxes, see income taxes 
Tax/Pack (Alpine Data Services), (Nov)40 
Taxware (Taxware Systems) 

reviewed, (Apr)51-52 
Tcimpidis, Tom (BBS sysop) 
case dismissed, (Apr)68 
charged with telephone fraud, (Feb)28-36, 87 
Teacher's Aide (Dynacomp) 

described, (Sep)28 
Teacher's Gradebook (Dynacomp) 

described, (Sep)32 
teaching, see education 
TechnoStress—The Human Cost of the Computer Revolution (Brod) 

agricultural information, (Mar)56-57 
CompuServe Kaypro SIG, (Jan)94; (Mar)26-30 
electronic mail networks, (Nov)14-17 
electronic publishing, (Jul/Aug)18-20 
international data transfer, (Jun)24-27 
online information sources, (Dec)17-20, 70 
RCPM software, (Dec)55-59 
software, (Jan)80; (Apr)42-45 
XMODEM protocol, (Apr)44-45 
see also bulletin boards; modems; Tcimpidis, Tom 
telecommuting, (May)30-34, 76 
AFL-CIO position, (May)36-37 
Toffler interview, (May)27-28, 72 
work-at-home movement, (May)38, 60 
Telelearning Systems 

online education, (Sep) 16 
Telematic Society (Martin), (Dec)75 
TeleMAX (Panamax), (Jan)ctrfold d 
telephone fraud, Tcimpidis case, (Feb)28-36, 87 
testing, see education 
Third World 
microcomputer use, (Jun)12, (Jun)30-34 
Argentina, (Jun)36-38, 40, 73 
Thorn EMI 

purchases Perfect Software, (Jan) 12 
TLC LOGO (Microsphere, Inc.), (Nov)41 
T/Maker Integrated Software (T/Maker Co.), (Nov)40 
Today's Office, described, (Nov)68 
Toffler, Alvin 

interviewed, (May)24-28, 72 
Torricelli Series (The Answer in Computers) 

described, (Sep)32 
Toshiba disk drives 

colored disks, (Jan)83-85 
Touch 'n' Go (Caxton Software) 

reviewed, (Sep)54-55 
Touchtyp (Micro-Art Programmers) 

reviewed, (Sep)55 
TOUR20.COM, (Sep)21-22, 79 
Tracy, T, photographs by, (Nov)fc 
traffic monitoring, (Mar)76 
touch typing, (Sep)53-56 
see also education 
Transient Program Area (TPA) 

CP/M+, (Feb) 12 
Traub, Joseph (ed.). Cohabiting With Computers, (Dec)74 
TREE.EXE, (Dec)71 

trend line forecasting, (Dec)38-39, 42-44 
Tri-State K-9 Service, Kaypro use. (Mar)32 
Trivia Mania (Dynacomp) 

described, (Sep)32 
Trivia Supreme (Hurd Computer Systems), (Nov)41 
Turboboard (Advent Products, Inc.) 

reviewed, (Jan)51-56 
Turbo Pascal (Borland International), (Jan)22-23 

January 73 


Subject Index • 1985 

Turbo Pascal (Borland International) (continued] 

C Language comparison, (Oct)40 • 

described, (Oct)25-27 

MBASIC command cross-reference, (Oct)29 

program listings 
examples, (Oct)26-27 

recommended reading, (Oct)28 

SWP co-processor, (Jun)1 1 
Turbo Toolbox (Borland International), (Oct)27 
Turbo Tutor (Borland International), (Oct)28 
Turbo Users Group (TUG), (Oct)28 

membership fee correction, (Dec)6 
Turkle, Sherry 

The Second Self— Computers and the Human Spirit, (Dec)74 
TYPE1 (Wildriver Software) 

reviewed, (Sep)54 
TYPE109A.COM, (Mar)22 

training programs, (Sep)53-56 

underdeveloped nations, see Third World 

Understanding C (Hunter), (Oct)42 


UNERA.COM, (Apr)22-23 

uninterruptible power supply (UPS), (Jan)47-48 

DC system, (Mar) 13 

Kaypro computer startup surge, (Mar)1 2 
United World Mission, Kaypro use, (Mar)35 

online education, (Sep)16-18, 78 
University of California 

library system, on-line searching, (Jan)8, 10 
UNLOCK.COM, (Mar)23 

clock speed, (Jan)51-56 

CP/M+, (Feb) 12- 13 

hard disk, (Oct)49-52 
UPS, see uninterruptible power supply 
users' groups 

Bad Sector, (Feb)46-49 
disbanded, (Mar)9 

Bay Area Kaypro Users and Programmers (BAKUP), (Feb)46-48 

Capital Users' Group (CAPKUG), (Jun)34 

international listing, (Feb)86-93 
corrections, (Mar)9 

Kaypro Users Genealogy Interest Group (KUGIG), (Jan)94 

Kaypro Users Group (KUG), (Jan)94 

San Francisco Kaypro Users Group, (Feb)49 
contact person, (Mar)9 

Tampa Bay KUG, (Jul/Aug)66-67, 72 

Turbo Users Group (TUG), (Oef)28 
membership fee correction, (Dec)6 

Vacavi lie State Prison (CA), Kaypro use, (Mar)32 

VD025.COM, (Sep)20-21 

ventilation, (Jul/Aug)75 

video screens, see CRT 

voice recognition devices, (Feb)55, 57-58 

Voss, Tom, illustrations by, (Oct)48, (Dec)39 

Vu Mor (Micro Tech Inc.), (Nov)44 

Waite, Michael 

Warlock's Castle (a BBS), (Feb)81 
WC1.COM, (Mar)24 

ribbon reinking, (Apr) 10 
weather forecasting study, Kaypro use, (Mar)35 
Weiss, Robert, see Seiter, Charles 
Western Behavioral Sciences Institute 

online education, (Sep)16-1 7 
whale research, Kaypro computer use, (Mar)40-44 
WHO, see World Health Organization 
WINSTALL, see WordStar (MicroPro), patching 
Woodward, Jon, photographs by, (Jul/Aug)fc, 24 
WordFinder (Writing Consultants), (Nov)40 
word processing 

printer buffers, (Jan)34-36 

public domain utilities, (Mar)22-24 

see also NewWord; public domain software; Perfect Writer; WordStar 
WordStar and CP/M Made Easy (Lee), (Jan) 1 7 

WordStar (MicroPro) 
16-bit version 

fix for spotty screen characters, (Jun)1 1 
accent printing, (Nov)8 
bibliography program, (Jan)59-60 
book reviewed, (May)68-70 
clock speed upgrade, (Jan)54 
dot matrix printers, (Jan) 1 5 
footnote program, (Jan)58-59 
Gemini printer installation, (Jan)15 
index generation, (Jan)7 1 ,-76 
INSTALL patching, (Apr)82-85, 89 
comprehensive guide, (Jul/Aug)32-50 
DDT, (Jul/Aug)33-36 
different versions, (Jul/Aug)33 
main menu suppression, (Jul/Aug)7 
patch points, (Jul/Aug)36-39, 44 
dot matrix printers, (Jul/Aug)48-50 
labels and addresses, (Jul/Aug)41-43 
parallel printers, (Jul/Aug)46 
sign-on speedup, (Jul/Aug)7, 81, 85 
underline between words, (Oct)8 
Perfect Writer (version 2.0) comparison, (Jun)44-45 
printer installation, (Jul/Aug)46, 48 
printing alternate character sets, (Jun)54-55 

programmable key applications, (May)20-22, (Jun)20-22, (Dec)12-16 
recommended reading, (Jun)22 
screenplay writing, (Jul/Aug)63-65 
screen refresh, (Deo)51 
submit files, (Jul/Aug)55-60 
WordStar- Magic (Silvia), reviewed, (Jun)72 
workstation furniture (California Computer Furniture), (Jan)ctrfold b 
World Classic Polynesian Outrigger Canoe Race, Kaypro use, (Mar)34 
World Health Organization (WHO) 
applications software, (Jun)32 
World Peace RCP/M, The, (Feb)81~ 
Write-Hand-Man (Poor Person Software) 

reviewed, (Nov)20-23 
bulletin board, (Jan)26-27 
freelancing, (Jul/Aug)25-29 
see also electronic publishing 

XANDU (a BBS), (Feb)81 

XF.COM, (Feb)8 

Xian Medical College (China), Kaypro use, (Mar)37 

XMODEM protocol, (Apr)44-45 


CRTs, (Sep) 10 
XScreen (Xpert Software), (Apr)89 

reviewed, (Dec)54, 60 
XtraKey (Xpert Software), (Nov)41 

reviewed, (Dec)54, 60 

screenplay writing, (Jul/Aug)64-65 

YAM, (Apr)45 

ZCPR3 (Echelon/public domain) 

availability, (Dec)30 

KBAR incompatibility issue, (May)7-8 

public domain versions, (May)1 8 

reviewed, (May) 16- 18 

Z-System, (Dec)24-26 
Z-Nodes (a BBS), (Dec)30 
ZRDOS, (Dec)26 
Z-System (Echelon, Inc.) 

reviewed, (Dec)24-27, 30, 32 

74 Profiles 


Carefully Selected Software for CM & MS-DOS 

CP/M 89 


KayPro Disk Kl 

KayPro Disk K19 


Modem software 

Prowriler Graphics 

Essential Utilities 

KayPro Disk K2 

KayPro Disk K20 

MS-DOS Disk MS2 


Color Graphics Routines 

Assembler, Disassembler 

KayPro Disk K3 

KayPro Disk K21 

MS-DOS Disk MS3 


Screen Dump 


KayPro Disk K4 

KayPro Disk K22 

MS-DOS Disk MS4 


ZCPR (Again) 

RBBS, Single-user 

KayPro Disk KS 

KayPro Disk K23 

MS-DOS Disk MS5 

MX-80 Graphics 

Fast Terminal St New BYE 

File and directory utilities 

KayPro Disk K6 

KayPro Disk K24 

MS-DOS Disk MS6 

Word Processing Utilities 

MBASIC Games & Key Translator 


KayPro Disk K7 

KayPro Disk K2S 

MS-DOS Disk MS7 

Small C Version 2 Compiler 

Z80 Macro Assembler 

Fig-FORTH Source 

KayPro Disk K8 

KayPro Disk K26 

MS-DOS Disk MS8 


Small C Version 2 Source 

EPROM Prog 8c Char Editor 

Super Games 

KayPro Disk K9 

KayPro Disk K27 

MS-DOS Disk MS9 


Typing Tutor 


KayPro Disk K10 

KayPro Disk K28 

MS-DOS Disk MS10 


Modem 730 

Modems, Qmodems and Kermit 

KayPro Disk Kll 

KayPro Disk K29 

MS-DOS Disk MS11 

Library &: Checkbook 

Turbo Pascal Games 1 

Multi-User RBBS 12.3 

KayPro Disk K12 

KayPro Disk K30 

MS-DOS Disk MS12 


Turbo Pascal Games II 

RBBS 12.3 Source 

KayPro Dis'n K13 

KayPro Disk K31 

MS-DOS Disk MS13 

Source ol fig-FORTH 

Turbo Bulletin Board 

Editor and Formatter 

KayPro Disk K14 

KayPro Disk K32 

MS-DOS Disk MS14 

Smarlmodem Program 

Forth-83 Much Fancier Forth 


KayPro Disk K15 

KayPro Disk K33 

Hard Disk Utilities 

A super utilities disk 

j!Jgjlsgpf v *v.^§ 

KayPro Disk K16 

KayPro Disk K34 

: - : "^yjiI8 MS-DOS Disks (5") 

Pascal Compiler 

Five games (mostly Turbo) 

KayPro Disk K17 

KayPro Disk K35 


Z80 Tools 

Small C Compiler Source 

: '^-'•^IrnSwB CP/M 80 Disks (V) 


KayPro Disk K18 

KayPro Disk K36 

&;5Mfi&EfSI CP/M 86 Disks (8") 


System Diagnosis 

Small C Library 


Information for the Technically Carious 

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January 75 

Little Mysteries 

Cold and warm boots: What's the difference? 

by David Weinberger 

Question: It is possible to set some attributes on the 
Kaypro. Which of the following are affected by CTRL-C 
and which are not? Why? 

1 . Key click turned on or off 

2. Numerical keypad definitions 

3. List device (i.e., data sent to parallel or serial port) 

4. Logged drive 

Answer: All of the above will survive a CTRL-C (AC). To 
understand why, it is necessary to know the difference 
between a cold boot and a warm boot. And to know that 
requires understanding of the basic structure of CP/M. 
Nothing is simple, is it? 

If you look at your Kaypro manual's memory map, 
you will see the parts of the CP/M operating system laid 
out. At the bottom of memory is CP/M buffer space, 
which CP/M uses for various housekeeping operations. 
Then comes a big chunk called the Transient Program 
Area (TPA). The programs you run, such as WordStar or 
MBASIC, are loaded into this space. 

Then comes the Console Command Processor 
(CCP), which contains the built-in commands (REN, 
ERA, USER, DIR, SAVE, TYPE). Next comes the Basic 
Disk Operating System (BDOS), which contains the 
general programs that allow you to send and receive 
information via your disk drives and other devices. 
Finally there is the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), 
which contains the customized programs necessary to 
get the Kaypro to run. 

This organization has some distinct advantages. If 
you write CP/M assembly language programs, you find 
that it is very easy to convert them for use in different 
computers running CP/M, even though these comput- 
ers may do the nitty-gritty work in different ways. This 
"portability" is one reason why CP/M has become so 

There is a list of about 36 different operations a 
programmer is likely to use — print a character on the 
screen, print a character with a printer, erase a file, find 

76 Profiles 

out the size of a file, find out if anything has been typed 
on the keyboard recently— that are accomplished by 
the BDOS. 

The programmer does not have to figure out how to 
get the Kaypro and the Osborne and the Morrow, etc., 
actually to do these things. The programmer merely 
has to say "Function #2," for example, and each of these 
computers will print a character on the screen. (Of 
course, the programmer has to say "Function 2" in 
assembly language and then assemble it properly.) So, 
• from the programmer's point of view, CP/M consists of 
uniform "buttons," which, when pushed, miraculously 
result in uniform results in diverse machines. 

But from the computer designer's point of view, 
things are different. It is up to the people who design the 
computer to get their machine to do all the things that 
CP/M wants done. For example, to erase a file, the 
computer must move the drive head of the disk drive to 
the proper spot on the disk. Disks come in various sizes 
and formats. By itself, CP/M does not know exactly 
where to move the drive head. That information must 
be supplied by each computer designer. 

So, the BDOS is generally uniform, but it is custom- 
ized for each machine. 

Now, when you first turn on your machine, it has not 
yet loaded the CP/M operating system. Yet it is that 
operating system that contains the instructions that 
tell the computer how to read and load a program from 
'a disk. Since the instructions for loading a program 
from a disk are themselves on a disk, it would seem the 
computer is stuck in a closed and empty loop. It needs a 
way to pull itself up by its own bootstraps. 

A cold boot does just that. In a chip in the Kaypro is 
some read-only memory (ROM), which prints a mes- 
sage on the screen asking you to insert a disk and 
automatically reads the first track of whatever is in 
drive A. If you have SYSGENed that disk (put a copy of 
the operating system on the disk using the SYSGEN 
program), the first track will contain CP/M. Once CP/M 
is loaded, you can start issuing instructions to read 

Copyright © 1986 David Weinberger. All rights reserved. 

other tracks. That is, you can type "MBASIC" or "PW" 
and the computer will know what to do. 

During the cold boot, all sections of CP/M are loaded, 
including, of course, the customized BIOS. That BIOS 
sets up the Kaypro to have a key click, to have the 
numeric keypad defined one way or another, to use the 
parallel or serial port as the standard, and to be logged 
onto drive A. 

It does this by filling in some memory spots right 
near the beginning of memory (in the CP/M buffer). 
Through various programs, you can alter those low 
spots, changing those attributes. But if you were to cold 
boot, the original, unaltered BIOS would be reloaded, 
and the new attributes would be wiped out. In order to 
make them permanent, you need a special program 
(such as Kaypro's CONFIG), which changes not only the 
spots in the memory of the computer but also the spots 
on disk. 

When you warm boot, you are doing something 
different. When you are in a program you do not need 
the built-in CP/M programs such as ERA and DIR, so 
CP/M allows the CCP (which contains those built-in 
programs) to be written over by programs that need the 
extra room. A warm boot rereads the CCP from the disk 
and rewrites it into memory. So, many programs pro- 
vide a warm boot when you are finished to make sure 
the CCP is there intact. (Some programs know they 
have not overwritten the CCP and so return you to the 
A> without a warm boot.) 

The BDOS is rewritten also during a warm boot, but 
not the BIOS, which is why the four attributes we began 
with are not affected by a warm boot. (During a warm 
boot, the computer is sent to the very lowest spot in 
memory, which tells it to jump high up to get some 
instructions, bypassing the spots that contain the 
information about which disk is logged and which 
printer port you want data sent to.) 

I warned you — nothing's simple. IM J 







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January 77 

d Trader 

This is the initial installment of a 
new feature in PROFILES. "Tip 
Trader" is tips and fixes for 
Kaypro computers and software 
gleanedfrom letters submitted by 
our readers. 

WordStar non-patch 

In this first installment of "Tip 
Trader" we need to correct some 
misinformation that is floating 
around the Kaypro user commu- 
nity. We have received several let- 
ters informing us that patch 
addresses for MS-DOS WordStar 
3.3 are the same as for CP/M Word- 
Star v. 3.0. This information is 
wrong! You will crash WordStar if 
you make patches based on this 

A few patch points near the front 
of the MS-DOS version of WordStar 
are the same as for WordStar 3.0. 
The farther into MS-DOS WordStar 
you go, the more addresses diverge 
from the 3.0 addresses. We repeat, 
do not use 3.0 patch addresses on 
your MS-DOS WordStar. Mne- 
monic locations are the same in all 
WordStar versions; absolute ad- 
dresses are not. 

Non-glare screen 

A 7-7/16 by 5-9/16 inch piece of 
single-strength acrylic plastic 
makes an inexpensive non-glare 
screen for your Kaypro. 

Install the plastic by carefully 
sliding it between the screen and 
the flexible plastic bezel surround- 
ing the screen. This can be done 
from the front of the computer. Fric- 
tion will hold the plastic in place. 
While not as clear as the $25 units 
sold by dealers, this is a satisfac- 
tory substitute. 

This trick will not work on a 
Kaypro 16 or a Robie. On both of 
these models the CRT projects far- 
ther to the front and less clearance 
exists between the CRT and the 
plastic bezel. 

Thomas Stanton 
Lansing, Michigan 

Disappearing underline 

The disappearing underline prob- 
lem referred to in October's "Q & A" 
is a characteristic of the Kaypro '83 
series. When the cursor passes over 
an underline character it is erased 
from the screen, but not from mem- 
ory. The character will return if you 
simply scroll up or down one entire 
screenful and then return. 

Matthew Chachere 
Glen Cove, New York 

WordStar headers 

Multiple-line page headers can be 
done in WordStar by assigning a 
carriage return and a line feed to 
one of the printer control patches. 
Assign the string 0D 0A to a patch 
point such as Phantom Rubout. 
Then enter your first header line, 
press A PG, and enter the second 
header line, all before pressing 

Bert Green 
Norfolk, Virginia 

Printer/screen toggle 

A simple trick to redirect printer or 
screen output in BASIC or any 
other language is to alter the IO- 
BYTE at memory address 0003h. 
The following BASIC program illus- 
trates the principle. 

100 POKE 3,65 ' MAKE LST:=CON: 

1 10 A$="* * * * OUTPUT LINE 


130 LPRINT STRING$(LEN(A$)*2,"=") 

140 INPUT "Scroll screen (Yes = 1)",SC 

150IFSC=1THEN 120 

160 INPUT "Hard copy (Yes = 1)",HC 

170 IF HC<>1 THEN 200 


190 GOTO 120 


210 END 

The trick to the whole thing is to 
reassign your LST device to the 
CRT in line 100. This would be for 
when you want printed output to go 
to the screen instead of to your 
printer. In lines 180 and 190 the 

IOBYTE is restored to the original 
value of LST:=LPT:. If you have a 
serial printer the value in line 100 
would be 1 instead of 65. 

Paul Muns 

Long Beach, California 

Date and time in MS-DOS 

If your MS-DOS Kaypro is like mine, 
without a clock, here is an easy way 
to set the date and time and avoid 
the clumsy "Date" and "Time" 
questions that MS-DOS asks when- 
ever you boot. If you use an Auto- 
exec.bat file, the time and date 
questions are skipped— but you 
still have to use several steps to set 
the correct values. 

A simpler way is to create a spe- 
cial batch file, like this: 
Date 2-% 1-86 
Time %2:%3 

The example here would be for 
February 1986, so I would name it 
"Feb. bat" — yes, you will have to 
edit it on the first day of every 
month, but naming it for its month 
reminds you. 

To set the clock on February 10, 
1986, at 9:15 a.m., you would just 
enter the command below: 
Feb 10 9 15 <CR> 
with spaces between parameters 
instead of those bothersome 
hyphens and colons. 

If you don't presently use an 
autoexec.bat file, you will need to 
make one, but it can contain just a 
remark, such as "Rem— Don't for- 
get to set the date and time." 

Joe Cobb 
Washington, DC. 

A Perfect Calc template 

I was delighted to see Rose Green's 
article describing her adventures 
with Perfect Calc ("Bookkeeping 
With Perfect Calc," November 
1985). For Rose Green and for 
many other Perfect Calc users who 
may have overlooked one of the fea- 
tures built into that program, may I 
offer a tip that will save many hours 

Copyright © 1986. All rights reserved. 

78 Profiles 

of deletions from already-filled 

Design your data files with all 
the necessary cells (boxes?), in- 
cluding the various formulas 
needed to make the required cells 
interact with one another, but leave 
all the cells empty of data. 

Once you have the design stage 
completed, save that file without 
entering data into it. This will be- 
come your master "template," to be 
used whenever you need a "new" 
file to record your data in. 

Whenever you find it necessary 
to use the "template" for getting a 
new file started, call it up by what- 
ever name you saved it under, enter 
the data required at that moment, 
then "save" that newly created file 
under some other filename by 
using Calc's A X, A W sequence, then 
renaming the "new" file when 
asked for the name to be used by 
Perfect Calc. 

This leaves the original "tem- 
plate" unchanged on the disk, gets 
your new file opened and whatever 
pieces of information entered, then 
saves it under a different name, 
which will also satisfy Perfect 
Calc's sense of duty, as the program 
will not ask if you want to "abandon 
modified buffers" when you are 
ready to exit the program. 

Bob Wallace 

Daly City, California 

Elite type 

I compliment Silveira on "Word- 
Star Deluxe." I have one suggestion 
for those with elite, or any 12 char- 
acters per inch, printw heels. 

For page formatting, change INI- 
TPF+18h (address 0369, default 
08). The 08 represents characters, 
so change it to llh (17), which then 
has the first elite character in the 
17th position. With 70 spaces 
across that gives 16 spaces on each 
side of the type — a very pretty page. 

Patti Cearley 

Woodland, Washington MM J 


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Russian, Greek, Math & Science, For- 
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* Automatic reversal of Hebrew and 
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print right to left. 

+ And much, much more. 


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January 79 

Beginner's Luck 

by Tyler Sperry 

Last month we covered the 
fundamentals of the CP/M 
operating system — what it 
is, what it does, how it works, and 
the basic commands. This month 
we'll do the same with MS-DOS for 
novice users of the Kay pro 16, 16-2, 
286i, 2000 or Kaypro PC and for 
those changing from CP/M to MS- 
DOS machines. 

Our goal is to give you the basic 
information you need to use your 
Kaypro. Occasionally, we will refer 
you to the manuals that came with 
your computer. We'll try to arm you 
with enough information to make 
that task easier. Once you've got the 
basics, you may discover a whole 
new world of meaning in the 

The executive secretary 

In last month's column, we com- 
pared CP/M to an executive secre- 
tary. The same analogy applies to 
MS-DOS. Just as the boss gives 
orders to the secretary, you give 
orders to your computer's operat- 
ing system. It's up to your "sec- 
retary" to manage the details of 
finding the information that you've 
asked for and putting it away when 
you're finished. 

Your responsibility is to give 
DOS, your secretary, orders that it 
can understand. It doesn't do any 
good to give orders in a language 
your secretary doesn't speak. DOS, 
simple-minded thing that it is, on- 
ly understands one type of sen- 
tence — the command. 

Communicating with DOS 

Giving commands to DOS is pretty 
easy: you type a command (either a 
keyword or the name of a program) 
along with whatever extra informa- 
tion the computer will need to com- 
plete the command. DOS lets you 
know when it's ready to accept a 
command by displaying a prompt 
like this: A>. 

The greater-than mark is the 
DOS prompt. The letter 'A" indi- 
cates which drive DOS is currently 
using. The disk drives are labeled 

80 Profiles 

sequentially: A, B, C . . . (Usually, a 
hard disk is assigned as C, so hard 
disk owners are greeted by C > .) 

Once you have the prompt, you 
type in the desired command. (Cor- 
rect any mistakes with the back- 
space key or the left-arrow key.) 
Once you've typed everything you 
need for the command, you start 
things by pressing the Enter key. 
For example, you could type 
A>DIR, which would give you a 
list— a DIRectory— of the files and 
programs on the disk in drive A. 

When DOS first gets a command 
from the keyboard, it examines the 
first word to see if it's an internal 
command (a small program built 
into DOS). DIR is one example; 
you'll encounter a few more before 
we're through. 

All this talk of program names 
has brought up an important point: 
while the number of commands 
listed in the DOS manual can be 
intimidating, most of your work 
will require only a half-dozen 
commands. There's no sense in 
being intimidated by something 
you'll never have to deal with. 

The internal commands 

You've already met the most popu- 
lar internal DOS command, DIR. If 
you don't want the entire directory 
list and just want to check on a 
particular file, simply add that file's 
name after the command. For 
example, to see if the disk format- 
ting program is available you'd type 
would respond with either some 

DOS 's method puts 
commands together 
in the same order in 
which people think. 

If the command you've typed 
isn 'tone of the internal commands, 
DOS will look on the current disk 
(remember those drive letters in 
the prompt?) to see if it can find a 
program with that name. If it can, it 
will start that program running. If 
not, it will give you an "Illegal com- 
mand" error message and wait for 
another command. 

As you might have guessed by 
now, you run any command or pro- 
gram with the same sequence of 
steps. All you need is the DOS 
prompt, a disk containing the pro- 
gram (if it isn't an internal DOS 
command), and the name of the 
program. Figuring out all of the 
contractions and acronyms of pro- 
gram names can be the trickiest 
part. Most of us could guess that 
WS stands for WordStar, or that 
DISKCOPY is the name of a pro- 
gram that copies floppy disks, but 
who but a programmer would 
divine the meaning of "DIR?" 

information about FORMAT or the 
clever reply, "0 files found." 

To copy files from one place to 
another, you would use the COPY 
program. If, say, you wanted to 
move the FORMAT program over to 
the diskette in drive B, you'd enter 

Notice the pattern developing 
here. You give the command name, 
the source file, and then the desti- 
nation. The syntax — how com- 
mands are put together— is more 
"natural" with DOS commands 
than it is with CP/M commands. 
(With CP/M you would have to type 
the command, the destination, and 
then the source. DOS's method 
puts commands together in the 
same order in which people think, 
not some arbitrary order that's 
easier for the computer to un- 

By the way, the COPY program 
allows you to copy several files at 
once. For example, if your corre- 

Copyright © 1986 Tyler Sperry . All rights reserved. 

spondence files all have the last 
name .LTR, you could copy all the 
letters from drive B to drive A like 
this: A > COPY B:*. LTR A:. 

In the command above, the "B:" 
tells COPY to use files on the dis- 
kette in drive B. The " * .LTR" tells 
COPY that you only want files with 
LTR as a last name. (The asterisk is 
known as a "wildcard;" it means 
any name will do.) 

As a more advanced operating 
system than CP/M, MS-DOS gives 
you two (count em) internal com- 
mands for removing files from a 
disk: ERASE and DELete. Actually, 
both commands run the same 
internal program. DOS has been 
set up to recognize both names. To 
continue with the wildcard trick 
from above, you could zap all the 
files on your disk by typing A > DEL 
*.*. This is such a potentially 
lethal combination of wildcards 
that DOS will verify the command 
with the reply 'Are you sure?" 

Most other commands aren't 
nearly so dangerous. The next one 
simply lets you display the contents 
of a text file onscreen. If, say you 
wanted to check the contents of a 
letter to Rick without bothering 
with WordStar, you could enter 

By now you're probably used to 
the idea of using letters and a colon 
to indicate which drive MS-DOS 
should use. If you want to deal with 
a lot of files from drive B, you 
change the current drive by typing 
just a letter and colon. For example, 
these two commands: 
have exactly the same effect as the 
previous command, causing your 
letter to Rick to scroll right past you 
on the screen. 

(You can temporarily freeze 
things by holding down the "CTRL" 
key and pressing "s." This stops the 
display cold. To start scrolling 
again, just press any other key.) 

If your letter to Rick was a form 
letter and you wanted to change the 
name of the file, you could REName 





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January 81 


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Beginner's Luck 

that file just by typing B>REN 

This is much simpler than the 
way CP/M handles the same sit- 
uation. You simply tell DOS the 
current filename and then the new 

And that's it for the basic internal 
commands. There is one last inter- 
nal feature of DOS you'll probably 
want to check on, and that's some- 
thing called subdirectories. DOS 
allows you to group files together 
under a common name, and treat 
them as a collection for certain 
commands. Tom Enright has 
detailed the use of subdirectories in 
his "Technical Forum" columns 
(October, November and December 
1985 issues). 

External commands 

External DOS commands are all 
stand-alone programs that exist on 
disk. DOS's external commands 
differ from application programs 
such as WordStar in that they are 
normally used for housekeeping 
("utility") functions. That is to say 
that external commands are for 
managing your disk files rather 
than for creating programs or writ- 
ing the "great American novel." 

A short digression about pro- 
gram and filenames: Anything 
stored upon disks will have two 
names. In Technoid — which we 
must, alas, all learn to speak— the 
two names are called the filename 
and the extension. To keep things 
simple, we'll refer to them by the 
unTechnoid terms "first name" 
and "last name." Programs are 
notable by the fact that their last 
names are all COM, EXE, or BAT. 
(These stand for "COMmand," 
"EXEcutable file" and "BATch 
file.") All filenames are allowed up 
to eight characters for a first name 
and up to three for the last name. 
End of digression. 

Perhaps the most useful of DOS's 
external commands is FORMAT. 
FORMAT is one of those commands 
you'll use often. Formatting a dis- 
kette—actually preparing a disk to 

82 Profiles 


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Cost accounting allows employee 
earnings to be distributed among various 
jobs and tasks that employees work on. 
Cost distributed this way can be reported 
by job, giving a cost breakdown. This 
module is integrated within the pavroll 


Accounts Payable is a complete menu- 
driven system. Features include: full aging 
analysis, debit memos, check register with 
general ledger breakdown, check printing, 
handwritten checks, partial payments, 
ledger reports, general ledger posting file, 
full data verification, and complete file 
maintenance. Also integrates with general 



Accounts Receivable is a complete 
menu-driven system. Features include: full 
aging analysis, customer file, credit and 
debit memos, invoice payment, 
progress payments, interest 
calculations, statement printing, general 
ledger posting file, full data verification, 
and complete file maintenance. Also 
integrates with general ledger. 


ABACUS™ comes with a professionally 
written manual. All file sizes are limited 
only by disk capacity of computer system. 
All of the modules are offered with fully 
documented SOURCE CODE, written 
in CBASIC, a popular programming 
language. However, ABACUS™ does not 
require CBASIC to run. 

Minimum Hardware Requirements: 

CP/M and PC-DOS systems: 64K, 
two 5'A" DSDD floppy disks, or two ST 
SSDD floppy disks, 132-column printer in 
compressed mode, 80x24 CRT. Please 
specify machine and disk format. 
*C/VA/ is a registered trademark of Digital 
Research, Inc. I'C-DOS is a registered trademark 
"J IBM. 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 

To Order, Call Toll-Free 


For More Information, Call 

(906) 226-3370 

SunSoft inc. 916 W. Baraga Ave. P.O. Box 1168 Marquette Mi. 49855 

S4995 or 55995 ( w j t (, Source Code ) plus ! 5 SI postage and handling, Michigan residents add 4% sales 
tax, credit card members add 3% charge. S 6 S " C.O.D. HO 5 " outside the U.S.A. 










SunSoft inc. 


1 30-day 



back guarantee that 









Writing for PROFILES 

PROFILES looks to its readers to 
supply many of the articles that 
appear in the magazine. If you are 
interested in submitting an article 
for possible publication, here's how 
to proceed. 

First look through our back 
issues to be sure the topic you want 
to write about has not been covered 
recently. We are looking for articles 
that will appeal to our major read- 
ership groups: business people 
(owners, managers, sales reps); 
writers and others who use their 
computers primarily for word pro- 
cessing; members of the academic 
community; scientists, engineers 
and researchers; programmers 
and other technically advanced 
users; and the general Kaypro com- 

We use articles pertaining to 
both CP/M and MS-DOS machines 
and on public domain and commer- 
cial software. If you wish to write a 
review, state your qualifications 
and any connections, however 
remote, you have with the manu- 
facturers. Do not contact the com- 
panies directly for review copies of 

Before you write your article, 
send us a query letter and repre- 
sentative samples of your writing, 
published or unpublished. If we are 
interested in your topic, we'll ask 
you to submit your article on spec- 
ulation (that is, we are not obligated 
to buy the article). At that time, 
we'll inform you of our rates and 
send writers' guidelines. PRO- 
FILES will not be responsible for 
unsolicited manuscripts. 

Include your daytime phone 
number and a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope, and send all cor- 
respondence to Submissions, in c/o 
PROFILES Magazine, 533 Stevens 
Avenue, Solana Beach CA 9207 5. 

Beginner's Luck 

hold files— is something that must 
be done to a diskette before you can 
use it for anything. Barring misfor- 
tune, you'll only have to do it once 
per diskette. 

Assuming that you want to for- 
mat a diskette in drive B, you would 
type FORMAT B: /S. This version 
of the command has three parts. 
The first part, "FORMAT," tells DOS 
that you want to format a diskette. 
The second part, "B:," is which 
drive will have the diskette to be 
formatted. And the last part, "/S," 
is an option of the FORMAT pro- 
gram that says to initialize the 
system tracks and copy COM- 
MAND.COM to that diskette. (You 
don't really have to understand 
what all that last part means.) 

DISKCOPY is another useful pro- 
gram. It copies everything on one 
diskette to another. For example, 
A>DISKCOPY A: B:, copies the 

have one. It's a complex enough sub- 
ject to fill several books. Which 
leads us to . . . 

Suggested reading 

If there is one aspect of the DOS 
manual that is particularly poor, it 
is the use of color and illustrations. 
There aren't any to speak of. An 
involved topic can be made much 
clearer with a simple illustration 
and the use of color. 

For that reason alone I recom- 
mend you check out two books on 
MS-DOS the next time you're in the 
bookstore. These are DOS Primer 
for the IBM PC & XT, by Mitchell 
Waite, John Angermeyer, and Mark 
Noble, and the MS-DOS Bible, by 
Steven Simrin. 

Both these books are easier to 
use than others written about DOS, 
simply because they utilize a sec- 
ond color to make the illustrations 

DISKCOPY is most 

often used to make 

working copies of 

your software. 

information on the diskette in drive 
A to the diskette in drive B. This 
program is most often used to make 
working copies of your software. 
The slight but definite chance of 
random glitch and catastrophe 
makes using your master disks for 
everyday operation a definite no- 
no. DISKCOPY is even smart 
enough to check whether the desti- 
nation disk has been formatted. If it 
hasn't, DISKCOPY will format the 
destination disk and then copy all 
the files from the source disk. 

The subject of DOS external 
commands is far too complex to 
deal with in one article. Other DOS 
external commands will search a 
file for a string of characters that 
you type in, compare files or entire 
diskettes, print text files on your 
printer while you edit another file, 
and back up your hard disk if you 

clear. Of course, both of them are 
well-written, too, but the graphic 
design makes these books superior 
to others written just as well. Fair 
warning— the Simrin book covers 
some fairly advanced topics toward 
the end, but they can all be safely 
ignored by beginners. MM J 

Tyler Sperry is a freelance writer 
and former Editor of PROFILES. 
He has a great deal of experience 
with the hardware and software 
aspects of Kaypro computers. Mr. 
Sperry was a member of the 
engineering team responsible for 
producing thefirstKaypro II (then 
called theKayComp) in 1982. 

84 Profiles 

Product Spoil igh 

by Tom Enright 

Kaypro has made quite a few 
changes in its product line 
in the past year. These 
changes have created some confu- 
sion among Kaypro owners about 
which model has what features. In 
this column we'll recap the current 
line of Kaypro computers. 

CP/M Kay pros 

The 8-bit product line has been 
reduced to four models: the Kaypro 
1, Kaypro 2X, Kaypro 10, and the 
Kaypro Robie- 

All Kaypro CP/M machines are 
based on a 4 MHz Z80A processor 
with 64K of memory. Each CP/M 
Kaypro also has two RS-232C serial 
ports and one Centronics parallel 
printer port. 

The Kaypro 7 

The Kaypro 1 is a "bare bones" 
CP/M machine and is the most eco- 
nomical model in the Kaypro line. It 
comes with two 392K double-sided 
drives but does not have a real-time 
clock or internal modem. 

In keeping with its "bare bones" 
approach, software bundled with 
the Kaypro 1 is minimal. Included 
with this entry-level Kaypro are 
Perfect Writer and CP/M 2.2 with 
the standard Kaypro utilities. 

In addition to the basic Kaypro 1 , 
a "Kaypro 1 word processing sys- 
tem" is being offered for a limited 
time. This system is a Kaypro 1 
combined with a Gemini dot- 

Copyright © 1986 Tom Enright All rights reserved. 

matrix printer and is being offered 
for the same price as the standard 
Kaypro 1. 

The Kaypro 2X 

The Kaypro 2X is a combination of 
the Kaypro 2 and 4. It comes with 
two 392K drives, a real-time clock, 
and a 300-baud internal modem. 

When the consolidated model 
line was being planned, Kaypro felt 
that the Kaypro 2 name was better 
recognized than Kaypro 4, so the 
Kaypro 2 designation was kept and 
applied to the Kaypro 4. 

The software that comes with 
the 2X includes WordStar, The 
Word Plus, Microsoft BASIC-80, C- 
BASIC, S-BASIC, InfoStar, CalcStar, 
Mite, MicroPlan, and the CP/M 2.2 
operating system. 

In addition to the standard 
Kaypro 2X, the Kaypro "Business 
Pak" consists of the Kaypro 2X plus 
a letter-quality printer from NEC. 
The Juki 6 100 is no longer Kaypro's 
official letter-quality printer. It's 
been replaced by the NEC ELF. 

The Kaypro lO 

There are no changes here. The 
Kaypro 10 still has a 10-megabyte 
Winchester hard disk, one 392K 
floppy drive, an internal 300-baud 
modem, and a real-time clock. 

The software package for the 
Kaypro 10 is the same as for the 
Robie, plus software for backing up 
your hard disk onto floppy disks. 

floppy drives for a total of 5.2 MB of 
disk storage. In addition, this com- 
puter has a real-time clock and an 
internal 300-baud modem. 

Software included with the 
Robie is the same as for the 2X, plus 
Kaypro's Master Menu program. 
MasMenu is a menu-driven front 
end for CP/M that lets you operate 
the computer without regard to 
what programs are in which user 
areas. MasMenu already knows 
what is in each user area, so all you 
need to do is select a program from 
the menu on your screen. 

The Kaypro Robie 

The Robie has two 2.6-megabyte 

MS-DOS Kaypros 

Kaypro's 16-bit product line is 
growing more diverse all the time. 
The basic models, in addition to the 
Kaypro PC, which we covered last 
month, are the Kaypro 16E family, 
the Kaypro 286i family, and the 
Kaypro 2000. 

The Kaypro 16E family is a 
series of transportable IBM PC 
work-alikes based on a 4.77 MHz 
8088 processor. They are available 
in two versions, each with three 
levels of memory expansion. The 
Kaypro 16/2E comes with two 
360K floppy drives and an ATlike 
keyboard, while the Kaypro 16E 
has a 10-megabyte hard disk, one 
360K floppy drive and the standard 
K16 keyboard. 

A standard K16 system has 

256K of memory and can be pur- 

(continued on page 93) 

January 85 

New Products 

New product listings are not re- 
views and should not be regarded 
as endorsements of products 
we've evaluated. 

Press releases and product 
information for this column 
should be sent to: New Products 
editor, do PROFILES Magazine, 
533 Stevens Avenue, Solana 
Beach, CA 92075. Releases must 
include prices and must list the 
Kaypro models on which the prod- 
ucts can be used. Send black-and- 
white photos if available. 

Print upgrade 

Bradford 1.20 is a computer pro- 
gram that enhances the print qual- 
ity of several dot matrix printers to 
near-letter quality (NLQ). These 
include Epson MX, RX and FX 
printers; Gemini 10-X and Gemini 
15-X printers from Star Micronics; 
and the IBM dot-matrix printers. 

Bradford 1.20 is an improved 
version of an earlier edition. The 
main improvement is in speed — the 
new version prints 80 percent 

Five different fonts are available 
through software choice. 

$39.95. All Kaypro computers. 
Concom Enterprises, 2626 West 
Touhy Avenue, Chicago, IL 60645. 
No phone number available. 

MicroPro help 

A newsletter published by the 
MicroPro users' group of America, 
OmniStar, is available for anyone 
who needs help with MicroPro 

The newsletter covers all Micro- 
Pro products. Regular columns 
include "Inside WordStar," by Vin- 
cent Alfieri, author of Mastering 
WordStar, and "Inside InfoStar," 
by Alan Zenreich, an InfoStar con- 
sultant. Regular articles include 
tips and patches for MicroPro prod- 

OmniStar is published monthly 
by Procyon Associates, Inc. Sub- 
scriptions are $20 a year. 

Omnistar, 7 1 West 1 1th St, New 
York, NY 10011, (212)595-4811. 

86 Profiles 

Online protection 

The Kleen Line modem protector 
shields your modem during online 
sessions by suppressing damaging 
telephone line spikes caused by 
lightning, atmospheric conditions, 
or phone office switching gear. The 
system uses two-stage semicon- 
ductor and gas discharge tube sup- 
pression techniques. 

Model PDS-11 has suppression 
on red and green phone lines, with 
yellow and black lines brought 
straight through. Standard modu- 
lar four-pin telephone connectors 
provide trouble-free hook-up. 

$69.95. Electronic Specialists, 
Inc., 171 S. Main St., RO. Box 389, 
Natick,MA01760, (617)655-1532. 

Spreadsheet graphics 

SuperGraphs creates graphs, 
charts, and plots from three differ- 
ent sources: user input, ASCII data 
files, and spreadsheet print files. 

SuperGraphs assists input of 
data with icon menus and user 
interaction. Onscreen viewing of 
graphs before printing is possible, 
allowing fine-tuning of final 

SuperGraphs will print line 
graphs, bar charts, pie charts, stick 
plots, and symbol plots. Different 
graphs and plots can be overlaid to 
present the desired image. Final 
graphs may be stored on disk or 
dumped to the printer. 

$49.50. Kaypro 16, 286i and 
2000. SourceView Software Inter- 
national, 835 Castro St., Martinez, 
CA 94553, (415) 228-6228. 

fax template 

The TaxCalc Corporate Tax Plan- 
ner helps corporations maximize 
their tax savings through efficient 
"what-if" tax planning analysis. 
Versions are available for federal 
corporate returns and California 

TaxCalc is designed for use by 
corporate officers, tax planners, 
and others who need to determine 
whether taxes could be reduced by 
increasing deductions, decreasing 
income, or both. 

The program allows comparison 
of the minimum tax, the alter- 
native tax on capital gains, various 
credits, and special deductions. 

$150. Kaypro 16, 286i, and 
2000. TaxCalc Software, Inc., 42 10 
West Vickery Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 
76107, (817)738-3122. 

Problem sleuth 

An alternative to the traditional 
spreadsheet analysis program can 
be found in Master Solver. This pro- 
gram is an equation-centered, 
paged, auto-spreadsheet. It's aimed 
at engineers, students, financial 
analysts, actuaries, real estate bro- 
kers, and others who need a tool for 
manipulating complex formulas. 

Master Solver supports up to 99 
pages. Users can switch between 
pages with a single keystroke. 
Equations on different pages may 
be linked together. Users may also 
create libraries of equations, which 
they may later access using a win- 
dowing feature. 

$64.95. All Kaypro computers. 
Master Soft, 200 E. 30th St., Suite 
230, San Bernardino, CA 92404, 

Budget builder 

Filmmakers can manage the bud- 
get of any production, from a 15- 
minute short to a mini-series, with 
Filmpro. Simply "rough out" a bud- 
get, check it, redo it right on the 
screen, and then dump to a printer. 
Using menu-driven commands, 
users can easily structure budgets 
without leaving out any of the little 

Copyright © 1986. All rights reserved. 

details. Designed around a film 
Industry budget form, the initial 
form contains 200 subheadings. 
Filmpro will hold up to 5,000 text 
entries and more than 20,000 
numeric entries. 

Three levels of budget design are 
available. The first is a "rough 
draft" that covers 38 main head- 
ings. The second level is created by 
filling in the 200 subheadings. This 
creates a "medium level" budget. 
The third phase allows the entry of 
actual names, props, royalties, etc. 

$495. Kaypro 16, 286i, and 
2000. Rp Software, RO. Box 15896, 
N. Hollywood, CA 91605, (818) 

DOS middleman 

1 dir (pronounced "wonder") acts 
as a "middleman" that insulates 
users from the complexities of DOS 
commands and syntax, manages 
the details of handling computer 
files, helps users create an almost 
unlimited quick-access menu sys- 
tem, and more. The program is 
ideal for computer novices who 
may be intimidated by DOS opera- 
tions. Experienced users will 
appreciate its shortcuts. 

The displayed list of files in the 
current directory can be sorted by 
name, extension, size or date; users 
can choose whether or not to dis- 
play hidden files or file creation 
date. The screen display also offers 
a menu of available commands and 
shows both disk and system mem- 
ory usage, date, time, and more. 

Maclnker Mercury 

Re-Ink Any Fabric Ribbon 
Automatically for 
Less Than cAj 

Now one Universal Cartridge 
Maclnker (UC) re-inks all fabric car- 
tridges and one Universal Spool 
Maclnker (US) re-inks all spools. We 
support over 1000 printer brands. 

Most dedicated Mac Inker(s) cost less 
than $60 and start at $54.95. The 
Universal Cartridge Maclnker is 
$68.50. The Universal Spool 
Macinker is $66.95 

Use your Mac Inker to re-ink your 
dry cartridges (for less than 5 cents 
in ink) and watch the improvement 
in print-out quality. Our residueless, 
lubricated, dot matrix ink yields a 
darker print than most new ribbons. 
Or get any of our six basic ink colors: 
Brown, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, 
Purple and use Mac Inker to create or 
re-ink your own colored cartridges. 
We have uninked or pre-colored car- 

Most cartridges can be used almost 
indefinitely, if ribbon is regularly re- 
inked, kept moist and lubricated, so 
that the fabric does not fray. Some 
customers have reported 80 re-inkings 
of the same cartridge and still getting 
excellent print. 

As of October '85 we have more than 
45,000 Mac Inker(s) in the field, in 
five continents (220V motors 
available). Mac Inker has been 
reviewed, approved and flattered in 
most magazines and even in the New 
York Times and the Chicago Sun 

'■0^ ; 0^ 


Universal Cartridge Mac Inker 

From the God of 
Communications a 
Divine Modem at a 
Miracle Price. 

• 100% Hayes Smartmodem* Com- 
patible; that is. Mercury runs with all 
the popular and just about any private 
or public domain communications soft- 

• 300/1200 Baud Speed, software or 
hardware (dip switch) selectable. The 
1200 Baud features will save you a 
bundle in long-distance connections. 

• Auto Dial/Auto Answer/Speed 

• Audio Monitor via speaker with 
/olume control 

• Front Panel Lights give you at a 
glance full information on the status 
and mode of your communication: 
modem ready — terminal ready — 
carrier detect — send data — receive 
data — high speed — auto answer — 
off hook. 

• Clear and Easy-to-Read Manual. If 

modeming is new for you, the Mer- 
cury manual will ease your way into 
the exciting and rewarding world of 
data transmission. 

• 18-Month Warranty 


Including power supply, telephone 
cable and manual. Computer to 
modem cable ($15) — shipping $4 
anywhere in continental U.S. 

*Hayes is a Trademark of Hayes Microproducts. 



Dealer Inquiries Welcome 

Order toll free 1-800-547-3303 

or ask for free brochure 

In Oregon and for 24-hour service 

(503) 297-2321. 

Computer Friends 

6415 SW Canyon Ct., #10 

Portland, OR 97221 

January 87 

GRAF 3.0 H9 95 "69 


the complete 

printer graphics program 

• display floating point data directly 
from spreadsheets, data bases, 
word processors, and 
programming languages (or the 
keyboard) in a wide variety of 
bar, pie, line, and scatter plots 

• plot and group up to 6 different 
variables on a single graph, 
distinguished by up to 14 
different fill-in patterns and 8 
different point-plotting symbols 

• menu driven operation supports 
automatic graph scaling, labeling, 
and legend creation 

• add up to 5 different-density grid 
lines, and choose from a wide 
variety of numerical labeling 



Squara W*v« ApprciMiMtlon 

i. a 



0.0000 1.570S 

4.7124 6.2832 

GRAF 2.0 Update Policy: Returning your original GRAF 2.0 disk to MSC entitles you to $20.00 off the 
above prices. 

iclude domestic shipping and handling. Orders outside 

. When ordering you MUST state your 

TERMS: We ship via first class mail. The above prices 

USA require addilional S5.00 for postage. N.Y. residents add slate sales tax. When ordering you MUST state your 
computer and printer make and model. We support MS-DOS (PC-D05) version 20 or later on computers with at 
least 192k RAM, and CP/M-80 version 2.2 or later on Z80 computers {other than modified Applesl supporting a 
TPA of at least 54k (requires 64k of RAM). Most sofl-sector disk formats are available. (If you can read several 
formats, please send us a list.) GRAF 3.0 works with any printer fully compatible with one of the following. Epson 
FX, RX, LX. MX (with GRAFTRAX), or LQ-1500; C. Itoh Prowriter: NEC 8023A: Star Micronics Gemini tOX. 15X. 
SG-10 SG-15; IBM Graphics Printer; Okidata 192. and earlier Okidata models equ.pped the IBM Pli 
Play" chips (If you have an Okidata printer, other than the 192. the Plug n Plav chips are rvqim 


KA Cf Systems 

lYItJV"' Consultants 

27 Forest Avenue 

Port Jefferson Static 

New York 11776-1820 

DRI MS-DOS MicraSo*, 

New Products 


WRITE $99.95 

Send $99.95 and this ad— Save 
$139! write features include: 

• Easy to use and learn 

• Trial print to screen: saves paper 

• Fast single-letter edit commands 

• Recover files even after a system 

• Fast scrolling 

.^ * As s 0r 


write does underlining, bold- 
face, proportional print. On- 
screen trial print lets you 
experiment without paper. All 
edit commands are single-letter 
and changeable. Normally 
$239, only $99.95 with this ad. 
Save $1 39 for a limited time! 


The master modem program- 
chosen by KayPro and Nova- 
tion. Preconfigured; running in 
five minutes. Online help 
always available, mite can 
recall phone numbers and 
modem settings from a disk file. 
If you call minicomputers, mite + 
adds 94 terminal emulations for 
only $25! 

Price: KayPro ll/IV/10: $150 

KayPro 16/286i/2000: $195 

Add $25 for terminal emulation 

Software Anthology Series 

7 CP/M disks, 1 MS-DOS disk. 
The tested best public & private 
utility programs. $32.50/disk. 

Workman & Associates 

1 1 2 Marion Avenue 

Pasadena, CA 91106 

(8181 796-4401 

Ask for our free catalog. More product 
information rushed on request. Please 
specify model of computer when order- 
ing. Add $2.50 for shipping. CODs 
cheerfully accepted! 

The computer's up-down cursor- 
control keys point to files on the 
scrollable directory list, and left- 
right keys point to functions. Some 
functions (execute, copy, type and 
erase) work on the indicted file, oth- 
ers independently of it. Function 
keys can also "point" to a com- 
mand or menu selection. From 
there, a single keystroke begins a 
selected operation. 

$95. Kaypro 16, 286i, and 2000. 
Bourbaki, Inc., 615 West Hays St., 
P.O. Box 2867, Boise, ID 83701, 
(208) 342-5849. 

Computer freedom 

Prnspool frees up your computer 
while output is being printed. This 
software package is implemented 
as a device driver to provide addi- 
tional flexibility and features. 

Since Prnspool is installed as a 
device driver, any program can 
send its output directly to the print 
spooler without writing it to disk 
first as required with the DOS 
PRINT command. This means out- 
put from programs can be spooled 
directly without ever exiting. 

Prnspool can support multiple 
printers on a single computer sys- 
tem, allowing simultaneous and 
independent spooling for every 
device. It also provides complete 
spooling control from the DOS com- 
mand level. Control functions 
include pausing and resuming 
printing, clearing the spooling 
buffer, and examining the status of 
the spooler. 

$39.95. Kaypro 16, 286i, and 
2000. Generic Computer Products, 
Inc., P.O. Box 790, Marquette, MI 
49855, (906)249-9801. 

Quick reference 

Microref has added a new line of 
software quick reference keyboard 
templates to its previous line of 
quick reference guides. The tem- 
plates are printed on 18-inch plas- 
tic sheets that can be written on 
and washed and are packaged with 
reference guides. 

The templates include simple 

and advanced procedures and key- 
strokes arranged in logical sec- 
tions. Templates can be stacked on 
the keyboard for easy reference. 

— * >p ^"'^_^B 





H|^^^| ^^m 

LJkotus l-2>3\ 

^H .-- ■ 


Microref quick reference guides 
are available for Lotus 1-2-3, Multi- 
Mate, WordStar, MultiPlan, Super- 
Calc, and VisiCalc. The guides 
contain index tabs, a built-in easel, 
illustrations, a glossary and index, 
and complete step-by-step pro- 
cedures for all beginning and 
advanced commands. 

$19.95. Educational Systems, 
Inc., 1000 Skokie Blvd., Wilmette, 
IL 60091, (312) 256-4750. 

Baud talk 

The new line of FasTalk modems 
are Hayes-compatible-plus, mean- 
ing they are fully compatible with 
the Hayes standard modem and 
also offer a host of features not 
found in Hayes modems. 

FasTalk modems feature such 
fully automatic features as dialing, 
selection of pulse or tone dialing, 
answering, and baud rate selection. 

The communications package 
SignOn is bundled with each mo- 
dem. A "learn" mode allows the 
package to be "taught" to perform 
log-on sequences, retrieve informa- 
tion, and sign off. 

An auto-start feature lets the 
user set a session time and date for 
automatic, unattended operation. 
SignOn uses function keys to issue 
most modem commands. An on- 
screen menu identifies the key 
associated with each function. 

$345 for 300 baud; $545 for 
1200 baud. Kaypro 16, 286i, and 
2000. Universal Data Systems, 
5000 Bradford Dr., Huntsville, AL 
35805,(205)837-8100. KIJ 

Can You Use More Space? 

Get I rOlViaStCr! a handsome acrylic 

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Free shipping on orders before 1 1/ 
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Az. residents add 7% sales :ax 

stand that . . . 

* Provides convenient 

* Frees up valuable 

* Enhances your work 

* Reduces eye and 
back strain 

* Fits most Kaypros 
1 , 2, 4, 1 0, & 1 6 

* Supports your 
Kaypro solidly 

Arizona Plastics 

Jtfmk Computer Products Division 
K^ Jk 790 South Park Avenue 
^r ■ Tucson, Az. 85719 

Dealer inquiries welcome 

January 89 

Technical Forum 

by Tom Enright 

The magazine gets a lot of 
mail from readers asking for 
technical help. We try to 
select representative letters as 
subject matter for "Q & A" and 
"Technical Forum." 

We can only select a few of these 
letters to print. Unfortunately 
many letters aren't usable because 
we can't identify the problem from 
the information provided. The 
intent of this month's column is to 
tell you how to write a letter we can 

Your letter has a better chance of 
being used in one of the columns if 
we know exactly which Kaypro you 
have and your problem is described 
completely. The basic information 
to include is the model of computer 
(II, 2'84, 2X, etc.) and, if you have a 
CP/M machine, which version of 
CP/M you have. 

We can only tell precisely which 
Kaypro you have from the CP/M 
version number. Most Kaypro mod- 
els have gone through several 
"incarnations" using the same, or a 
similar, model number. We can't 
always take time to contact the 
writer directly for clarification. 

Hardware problems 

When you need help isolating a 
hardware problem, we need to 
know the repair history of your 
machine. Has your computer 
shown a similar problem before? 
When was the last time the drives 
were aligned or cleaned? (In many 
cases, dirty or misaligned drives 
may be the cause of your problem.) 

If the problem only occurs after 
you've been working for a couple of 
hours, tell us. Heat-related prob- 
lems usually show up after a couple 
of hours of use or only during the 
hottest part of the day. The approxi- 
mate temperature of the room 
you're working in can help us to 
figure out what is happening inside 
your Kaypro. The more you tell us, 
the more we can help. 

Printers can cause an unbeliev- 
able amount of frustration. They 

90 Profiles 

are also one of the most difficult 
pieces of equipment to trou- 
bleshoot by mail. If your printer 
emulates (imitates) the command 
set of another printer, or a subset of 
some other printer's commands, let 
us know. Many printers that emu- 
late another printer's command set 
don't emulate the complete com- 
mand set, and for some reason, 
many printer manufacturers are 
loath to reveal this information. 
They'll usually tell you what com- 
mands their printer responds to, 
but not whether their command set 
is based on someone else's. 

Most printer manuals have a 
page in the back that summarizes 
the commands that printer recog- 
nizes. Make a photocopy of that 
page to include with your letter. If 
we can build up a reference library 
of printer command sets, we can be 
of more help to more readers. We 
can't guarantee we'll be able to 
solve all printer problems, but we'll 
give it our best try. 

When it comes to WordStar 
patches we absolutely must know 
what patches you've installed and 
where you installed them. Without 
that information we're just groping 
in the dark. Since most WordStar 
patches deal with printers, tell 
us which printer you have. If possi- 
ble, include a photocopy of your 
printer's command set. 

We normally answer questions 
on software when several letters 
relate a similar problem. Questions 
about third-party software (pro- 
grams that didn't come with your 
Kaypro) are next in priority after 
questions on the bundled software. 
We feel that our first obligation is to 
help our readers with the system as 
it was purchased from Kaypro 

Other sources of help 

Due to the limited space available 
in the magazine and the lead time 
before material gets into print, 
readers need other sources of help. 

It's better to 
include too much 
information than 

not enough. 

If you've added enhancements to 
your Kaypro, say so in your letter, 
especially if you have added more 
than one third-party board or mod- 
ification. Not all add-on items are 
compatible with each other. The 
extra electrical draw, heat, or some 
other characteristic can have a 
major effect on your machine's per- 
formance. This becomes even more 
important if you have an MS-DOS 

Software difficulties 

The key to getting help is to include 
enough information about your 
software. It's much better to include 
too much information than not 

Your dealer, local KUGs, and Kay- 
pro Technical Support are the 
sources suggested most often. 

Your dealer is the ideal person to 
handle support questions and tech- 
nical problems. The trick is to find a 
dealer you can rely on — not all deal- 
ers want to provide after-the-sale 
support — and whose information 
you trust. Try compiling a list of 
questions you already have the 
answers for and ask several dealers 
to give you their answers. You'll find 
out pretty quickly which dealers 
know what they are talking about. 

The next step on the ladder is a 
local KUG (Kaypro Users' Group). 
KUGs are made up of people just 
like you— Kaypro owners. If they 

Copyright © 1986 Tom Enright. All rights reserved. 




. . .details below 


.with Traveling Software. 

To order, or find the dealer nearest you, 

CALL 1-800-343-8080 

dealer inquiries invited 


($100 value!) with any 

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Jan. 31, 1986. 

6 6 The program and manual were user 
friendly. . .an excellent value. 9 9 Mary 
Jeann Batham, Portable 100/200. May 1984. 

Manager ™ 

Maintain a detailed list of appointments and things-to-do. Consult on- 
screen or printed records. Automatically reschedule recurring appoint- 
ments. Provides a multiple keyed "Traveldex" database for keeping names, 
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generation of mailing labels. $99.95 

Traveling • 6. ..very useful in helping me track my 

Project projects.. .simple... provides useful data and 

Mananar TM printouts. • • J. Michael Masterson, strate- 

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Tracks expenditures in time, dollars, or other units for several projects at 
once. Provides reports and graphs, both printed and on-screen, show- 
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Traveling Software, Inc. 
11050 Fifth Avenue, N.E. 
Seattle, WA 98125 
[206) 367-8090- 

" aveling • 6. ..the Traveling Expense Manager is well- 

Expense thought-out and keeps track of exactly the 

Manaaer ™ type of information thatyou need while you 

3 are on the road. It's everything you need to 

keep your boss— and the IRS— happy. 9 9 
Dan Robinson, InfoWorld, July 30, 1984 
Define expense categories. Record expenses to any account. Indicate if 
a business expense is billable. Produce reports by client or project, and the 
type of expense. View bar graphs of budget and actual expenditures 

Manager ™ 

6 6... first class software, a valuable tool for 
consultants and others billing clients by the 
hour. 9 9 John P. Mello, Portable 100/200. 
April 1984. 

Track time spent on projects or for a client. Apply your own billing rate. 
Identify time expenditures as billable or nonbillable. Clock feature times 
events as they happen. New version includes a complete billing and 
receivables option, as well as a client card-file database. Prints many time 
and billing analysis reports, as well as mailing labels. $199.95 

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Technical Forum 

haven't already had the problem 
you've encountered, they may 
know someone who has. Drawing 
on their experiences can be un- 
usually profitable. To find a KUG in 
your area, check with your dealer 
or call Kaypro's KUG manager at 

Your next alternative is Kaypro 
Technical Support (located at the 
Solana Beach plant, 481-3920). 
They may be hard to contact, but 
they are there. These people handle 
an unbelievable number of calls 
each day. The main thing to keep in 
mind is that they have to handle 
dealer calls before yours, and that 
this policy was established by 
Kaypro's management, not the peo- 
ple in technical support. 


Let's suppose a worst-case situa- 
tion. You live 50 miles from the 
nearest dealer, there is no users' 
group in your area, and Kaypro 
Technical Support is absolutely 
unreachable. What do you do? 
There is one more source of help — 
the Kaypro SIG (Special Interest 
Group) on CompuServe. This is one 
of the most active sources of in- 
formation on Kaypro computers 
outside Solana Beach. 

For someone who is having trou- 
ble getting good technical help and 
software tips, this SIG is invalu- 
able. The sysops are knowledgeable 

and very helpful. Even if you have a 
helpful dealer and a good local 
KUG, the Kaypro SIG is a goldmine 
of good, accurate information. 

CompuServe SIGs have message 
areas where tips and advice are 
traded. Just state your question — 
the answers will come from other 
SIG members. Even if they can't 
solve your problem outright, you'll 
get leads that'll point you in the 
right direction. 

SIGs also have several "data 
libraries." These are full of pro- 
grams and text files for you to 
download. Each data library is 
devoted to a particular area of inter- 
est to SIG members. The Kaypro 
SIG has libraries on free software, 
Perfect software, Star (MicroPro) 
software, communications pro- 
grams, and several other subjects. 

Other SIGs on CompuServe of 
interest to Kaypro owners are the 
CP/M SIG Borland SIG, and two 

Access to the Kaypro SIG is open 
to anyone with a CompuServe 
membership. From CompuServe's 
main menu you can go directly to 
the Kaypro SIG by typing GO 
KAYPRO. You can pick up a Com- 
puServe membership kit at many 
computer dealerships, or even at 
bookstores like B. Dalton. If you're 
not already a CompuServe mem- 
ber, consider signing up soon. M J 

"Do you think artificial intelligence existson other planets?" 

92 Profiles 

Product Spotlight 

(continued from page 85) 

chased with or upgraded to either 
512K or 640K. The same multi- 
video card used in the KPC is now 
used in the Kaypro 16E family— 
the "E" is for enhanced video. A 
Kaypro 16E comes in a standard- 
size Kaypro chassis. 

Kaypro now has four variations 
of the high-performance 286i, an 
IBM PC AT work-alike. The "A" 
model comes with 512K of RAM 
and a single 1.2-megabyte drive. 
The "B" version adds a second 
high-density drive and the soft- 
ware bundle. The 286i-C has 640K 
of RAM, a 20-megabyte hard disk 
and one high-density floppy drive 
but no software. The top-of-the-line 
286i-D has 640K of RAM , one high- 
density drive, a streaming tape 
drive for hard disk backup and the 
software bundle. 

The Kaypro 2000 is a lap-top 
computer much like the Data Gen- 
eral One. There's a standard model 
that is also available with memory 
and modem upgrades. The basic 
Kaypro 2000 comes with 256K of 
RAM and one 720K 3 1/2-inch 
floppy drive. The enhanced version 
has 768K, a 3 1/2-inch drive, and 
an internal 1200-baud modem. 

Kaypro's 16-bit software bundle 
includes the WordStar Professional 
package (WordStar, Mailmerge, 
CorrectStar and Starlndex), Info- 
Star (DataStar and ReportStar) for 
database management, a desktop 
manager called PolyWindows, and 
Mite for telecommunications. M J 

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Wouldn't You Be More Careful How You Handled Them? 

Your Portable Computer and Software Cost Much More!!! 

Now You Can Give Them Maximum Protection 

Rain, high humidity, dust, and occasional'bumps and scrapes 
all damage your portable computer. We at Michele-Lynn have 
designed and developed a virtually waterproof, light weight 
and highly versatile computer carrying case. Also, a com- 
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here in the USA and are constructed of high quality water 
repellent lined and insulated nylon. These bags are equipped 
with storage compartments for cables and disc. They also 
contain a patent pending humid-a-pocket to help rid your 
investment of any accumulating moisture. Extra Bonus 
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top. Designed for maximum moisture protection. Both bags 
are available in four attractive colors (see order form). 
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that turn your existing Perfect Calc" (Version 1.x) and CalcStar™ programs 
into the perfect personal tax aids for 1985. They cut through the time- 
consuming task of preparing individual Federal tax returns by using the 
power and flexibility of the spreadsheet program that came with your com- 
puter. All required calculations, including tax table "lookups", are built right 
in. In addition to the standard Form 1040, our package includes templates 
for Schedules A&B, C, D, E, G, W, and SE, and Forms 2106, 2119, 2441, 
3468, 4562 and 6521. 

31.95 - Postpaid 

Our low, postpaid price hasn't changed and we accept Visa, MasterCard, 
check or money order (sorry, no CODs). When ordering, be sure to specify 
both the version {Perfect Calc"" or CalcStar™) and the disk format 
(Kaypro ™ or MS-DOS ™ ) you want. Add applicable local sales tax on all New 
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Mail Orders: 

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Phone Orders: 

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Trademarks: Kaypro - Kaypro Corporation: MS-DOS - Microsoft Corporation; Perfect Calc - Perfect Software, Inc./Thorn 
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January 93 

Books in Brief 

by Dick Lutz 

Let it first be said that you 
don't really need books on 
MS-DOS. Microsoft's disk 
operating system is basic, bread- 
and-butter stuff, and it's likely you 
can tease what you need out of the 
manual(s) and save your money for 
something really necessary. 

Having said this (sorry, authors 
and publishers), I'll add that if 
you're making a transition from 
CP/M, you should find MS-DOS 
easy to learn as you need its various 
features, a step at a time. I'll qualify 
that this much: If you're adapting 
to a hard disk, which is where dif- 
ferences between CP/M and MS- 
DOS become really important, you 
probably ought to read the manual 
sections on PATH, MKDIR (make 
new subdirectory), CHDIR (change 
active directory), BACKUP and 
RESTORE early on. 

Then, if some experimentation 
with your system (before you com- 
mit sole copies of important files to 
the fixed disk) doesn't reveal what 
you need to know, consider buying 
a book on MS-DOS. 

Further, most manuals are 
rather incomplete and obscure on 
creative ways to use BATch files 
(like CP/M's SUBMIT, but more 
powerful). If you suspect automat- 
ing start-up and other MS-DOS 
operations might be useful, and 
you can't get what you need from 
the manual, that's another cause for 
considering an MS-DOS primer. 

Finally, if you have much trouble 
making full sense of "pipes" and 
"filters," one of these books might 
bail you out. 

It's when you get beyond the 
basics that a book might be helpful. 
With this in mind, I've focused my 
consideration of MS-DOS books on 
hard disks, BATch files, and other 
elements most likely to be sticking 
points in putting MS-DOS to work. 
Out of about a dozen I skimmed, I 
selected three for more thorough 

Hands-On Guide to PC and MS 
DOS, by Alan Hoenig. $15.95, Lit- 
tle, Brown and Company, Boston. 

94 Profiles 

221 pages. Generally, I liked its 
straightforward organization, but I 
found some specifics a little dense. 
There are few diagrams. 

PC-DOS: Introduction to High- 
Performance Computing, by Peter 
Norton. $17.95, Brady/Prentice- 
Hall. 324 pages. It's the most 
novice-oriented of the three books. 
Some of its plan of organization 
appeared whimsical. Illustrations 
consist largely of cute cartoons 
that occasionally amuse but sel- 
dom contribute to understanding. 

PC-DOS and MS-DOS: A Guide 
for Beginning and Advanced 
Users, by Thomas Sheldon. $18.- 
95, McGraw-Hill. 374 pages. It has 
a tutorial and seems to contain 
more information than the others 
by a respectable margin. It con- 
tains well-conceived diagrams that 
are rarely hard to sync with the text 
they illustrate. 

Hereafter, I'll refer to the books 
by the authors' names. 

Batch operations 

Too many of the books I skimmed 
presented examples of BATch files 
with a comment something like, 
"Of course, this example does abso- 
lutely nothing useful, but it does 

ject in a larger context, building 
from relatively simple explana- 
tions to fairly difficult examples. 
This means we get a six-page intro- 
duction to the concept in chapter 8, 
just in time to put the information 
to work in chapter 9. 

Further on, another 19 pages 
ease us into more complex usage, 
including looping and other uses of 
FOR, IF and GOTO. Finally another 
ten pages provide some specific, 
useful examples — log-on and pass- 
word routines, an archiving pro- 
gram, and a procedure for mail 
exchange on a system used by more 
than one person. Sprinkled all 
throughout the book, in fact, are 
more than 30 examples of BATch 
files — useful both as-is and as read- 
ing for ideas. 

Norton is too apologetic at times, 
warning us that "some of the exam- 
ples are a bit complicated" and 
then treating them as though 
they're intimidating. For the most 
part, they aren't, and they go into a 
good deal less detail in 24 pages 
than Sheldon's treatment. 

Hoenig covers the use of BATch 
files in just 18 pages, with consider- 
able white space around examples. 
While the essentials are there and 

Too many books present 

examples with comments 

like, "Of course, this 

does nothing useful. " 

illustrate the operation of . . . ." 
Because BATch files are so very 
useful, there's little excuse for this; 
examples can be devised that teach 
as well as inspire by example. 

I liked Sheldon's approach to this 
subject best, even though pieces of 
it must be ferreted out of five sepa- 
rate chapters. This can be forgiven 
for two reasons: BATch files are 
useful in a variety of ways that 
interlock with other subjects, and 
Sheldon has taken a building-block 
approach that deals with each sub- 

the writing generates reader under- 
standing of the "how," the lack of 
solid examples gives short shrift to 
the "why." 

Pipes and filters 

MS-DOS allows the output of a com- 
mand like DIR to be piped through 
a filter (SORT, for example) and/or 
redirected to a file or output device 
other than the screen; similarly, a 
program or command can take 
input from a file. To a first-time 
micro user, the benefits may not be 

Copyright © 1986 Dick Lutz. All rights reserved. 

immediately apparent, and some 
prompting by these books might 
help beginners make good use of 
pipes, filters, and input/output 

All three books provide adequate 
coverage. The Norton book does it 
at a more elementary level, dealing 
with pipes and filters in the same 
chapter that elaborates on paths, 
and again warning of complexity 
and general scariness. Hoenig does 
a good job of covering the various 
option switches. Sheldon again 
provides the most extensive exam- 
ples, though covering the subject in 
only 1 1 pages. 

Hard disk territory 

Norton's book appears intended for 
the user not yet advanced enough 
to be using a hard disk, though 
there is some discussion of the 
PATH and subdirectory facilities 
necessary to manage the greater 
capacity involved. 

Hoenig provides a clear descrip- 
tion of a directory tree and some 
reasonable examples of subdirec- 
tory organization; a minor flaw is 
an inconsistency between tree dia- 
grams (which are tree-like rather 
than roots-like) and the "above" 
and "below" references. His treat- 
ment of BACKUP and RESTORE is 

Sheldon's is the book to buy if 
your primary interest is in getting a 
good start with a fixed disk. Four 
full chapters (about 40 pages), plus 
sections of others, deal with vari- 
ous facets of the subject, including 
some 20 pages in a richly diagram- 
med chapter on hierarchical filing 


Of these three works, my bias is for 
Sheldon, on the grounds that you'll 
quickly get almost all you can out of 
the simpler books; I think a really 
good book should be rich enough in 
content that you'll keep it handy as 
a reference book and will learn 
more each time you take it off the 
shelf. m*i 

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Phone (701)838-3546 



inc. w 

January 95 

Ad Index 

Advertiser Page No. 

Advent Products 1,48,49 

Alpine Data 89 

Arizona Plastics 89 

B.C. Software 64 

Blackship Computer Supply 92 

Borland International 7 

C.E.I. 58 

CDE Software 82 

Central Computer Products .... 15,16,17 

Chaucer Software 5 

Civil Computing Corp 79 

Computer Friends 87 

Computer Perfect 45 

Computer Professionals, Inc 26,27 

Computerware 54 

Cuesta Systems 54 

Custom Program House 81 

Discount Supply Center 11 

Diskette Connection 54 

Emerald Microware lO 

EZ Systems 22 

Financial Track Systems 64 

H & E Computronics Back Cover 

High Tech Research Inside Front Cover 
High Technology, Inc 6 


Page No. 

Hurd Computers lO 

Intersecting Concepts 60 

James River Group 59 

Jon Ik George Software 93 

Kamasoft 57 

Kaypro General Store 57 

Komputerwerk 20 

Letzten-Pfenning Software 9 

Marvel Software 79 

Michelle-Lynn, Inc 93 

Micro Art Programmers 55 

Micro Cornucopia 75 

Micro Interfaces, Inc 24 

MicroRckD 81 

Microcomputer Sys. Consultants. ... 88 

Micropro 62,63 

Microsphere 77 

Mycroft Labs Inside Back Cover 

Ohio Plastic & Safety Products 32 

Paradigm Consultants 41 

PeopleTalk Associates 13 

Point Data Products 18 

Poor Person Software 92 

Practical Business Software 47 

Pro* Access 61 

Advertiser Page No. 

PROFILES Magazine 40 

Quadravoice 24 

Rocky Mountain Software Systems. 53 

Rose Associates 39 

Second City Software 8 

Seitz Corporation 95 

Softcraft, Inc 23 

Southwest Computing 22 

Spectre Technologies 33 

Stanton Software 8 

SunSoft Inc '.83 

Techware 20 

Traveling Software 91 

TSKInc 95 

Wall Street Journal 56 

WestWind Computer 2 

Woodsmith Software 11 

Workman & Associates 92 

Writing Consultants 25 

Xpert Software 19 

• Assembly language tutorial: 
Beginners will be offered an expla- 
nation of how assembly language 
works, plus an introductory pro- 
gram for rescuing files. 

• Using MailMerge with a data- 
base: How to team MailMerge with 
DataStar or dBASE II to produce 
form letters, plus tips on sorting 
with SuperSort and FormSort. 

• CP/M graphics packages: Draw- 
ing? On a Kaypro? Yes. If you have a 
Kaypro with a graphics screen, you 
can draw, do graphs and charts, 
design a logo and more by using 
graphics software. 

• Bibliographic software: In part 1, 
specialized bibliographic database 
management programs for stu- 
dents, professors and researchers 
are discussed; in part 2, we'll look 
at free-form filers that give you easy 
access to data without your having 
to enter it in limited "fields." 

U.S. Postal Service 


Required by 39 U.S.C. 3685 

1 A. Title of Publication: PROFILES. 2. Filing Date: 10/ 1 /85. 3. Frequency of Issue: Monthly except 
January and August. 3A. No. of Issues Published Annually: 10. 3B. Annual Subscription Price: $25 
4 & 5. Known Office of Publication and General Business Offices: 533 Stevens Ave., Solana Beach, 
CA 92075. 6. Publisher: Geoffrey W. Soule. Address: Same as above. Editor: Diane Ingalls and Terian 
Tyre, Co-Editors. Address: Same as above. Owner: Kaypro Corporation, Stephen F. Kay, David A. Kay, 
Nancy L. Kay, Alan M. Kay, Andrew F Kay, Janice Kay Batter, Frank Kopischansky, Cede and Co. 
Address: Cede and Co. - Box 20, Bowling Green Sta., New York, NY 10004; All others - 533 Stevens Ave., 
Solana Beach, CA 92075. 8. Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and other Security Holders over 1 %: 
None. 9. Not Applicable. 

10. Extent and Nature 
of Circulation 

A. Total No. Copies 

B. Paid Circulation 

1 . Sales through dealers, carriers, 
street vendors, and counter sales 

2. Mail subscriptions 

C. Total Paid Circulation 

D. Free distribution by mall carrier or 
other means, samples, complimentary, 
and other free copies 

E. Total Distribution 

F. Copies not distributed 

1 . Office use, left over, unaccounted, 

2. Return from news agents 

Average No. copies/ 

issue preceding 

12 months 

Actual No. copies/ 

issue published 

nearest to filing date 














G. Total 101,438 

I certify that the statement* made by me above are correct and complete. 




Geoffrey W. [yule 

: statement* made by 

96 Profiles 


Format and read different disks. Gain COMP/lfability 
with a variety of disk formats. Improve data 
processing efficiency by eliminating incompatability 
between different brands of microcomputers. 

COMPAT allows you to simulate exactly the drives of 
up to 90 CP/M systems. COMPAT also allows users to 
transfer files to/from various MS-DOS formats without 
the use of an intermediate disk. 

• Requires less disk space 

• Formats up to 10 times faster than other interchange 

• Allows users to comerteitherorboth drives 

• Offers an independent file utility program (MYCOPY). 

COMPAT users agree, it's the most versatile product of 
its kind on the market today. We think you'll agree. 
Simply complete and return this coupon or call for 
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Florida residents add applicable state sales tax. 


,N I 


Street Address . 



Phone ( ) 

□ Check □ VISA □ MasterCard 

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Phone (904) 385-1141 




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Introducing the Most Powerful 
Business Software Ever! 




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The'VERSABusiNESS™ Series 

Each VERSABUSINESS module can be purchased and used independently, 
or can be linked in any combination to form a complete, coordinated business system. 


VERSAReceIVABLES*" is a complete menu-driven accounts receivable, invoicing, and 
monthly statement-generating system. It keeps track of all information related to who 
owes you or your company money, and can provide automatic billing for past due ac 
counts. VERSARECEIVABLES™ prints all necessary statements, invoices, and summary 
reports and can be linked with VersaLedger II™ and VersaInventory"". 

VeRSAPaYABLES™ $99.95 

VERSAPayables™ is designed to keep track of current and aged payables, keeping you 
in touch with all information regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. VERSAPAYABLES™ maintains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, transaction reports, aged payables reports, vendor reports, 
and more. With VERSA PAYABLES", you can even let your computer automatically select 
which vouchers are to be paid. 


VERSA PAYROLL™ is a powerful and sophisticated, but easy to use payroll system that 
keeps track of all government-required payroll information. Complete employee records 
are maintained, and all necessary payroll calculations are performed automatically, with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval. A payroll can be run totally, automati- 
cally, or the operator can intervene to prevent a check from being printed, or to alter 
information on it. If desired, totals may be posted to the VERSALEDGER 11'" system. 

VersaInventory™ $99.95 

VERSA INVENTORY*" is a complete inventory control system that gives you instant access 
to data on any item. VERSA INVENTORY™ keeps track of all information related to what 
items are in stock, out of stock, on backorder, etc., stores sales and pricing data, alerts 
you when an item fails below a preset reorder point, and allows you to enter and print 
invoices directly or to link with the VersaReceivables™ system. Versa Inventory™ prints 
all needed inventory listings, reports of items below reorder point, inventory value re- 
ports, period and year-to-date sales reports, price lists, inventory checklists, etc, 

VersaLedger h™ $149.95 

VersaLedger II™ is a complete accounting system that grows as your business 
grows. VERSALEDGER IP"" can be used as a simple personal checkbook register, 
expanded to a small business bookkeeping system or developed into a large 
corporate general ledger system without any additional software. 

• VersaLedger II™ gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

(300 to 10,000 entries per month, depending on the system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever, 

• prints tractor-feed checks, 

• handles multiple checkbooks and general ledgers, 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers, 
balance sheets, income statements, transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VersaLedger II™ comes with a professionally-written 160 page manual de- 
signed for first-time users. The VersaLedger II™ manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with VersaLedger If", using complete sample data files 
supplied on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts. 


Every VERSABUSINESS*" module is guaranteed to outperform all other competitive systems, 
and at a fraction of their cost. If you are not satisfied with any VERSABUSINESS" module, you 
may return it within 30 days for a refund. Manuals for any VERSABUSINESS'" module may be 
purchased for $25 each, credited toward a later purchase of that module. 
All CP-'Mbased Computers must be equipped with Microsoft BASIC v 

(MBASIC or BASIC-80) , < 

„. To Order: 

Write or call Toll-free (800) 431-2818 
(N.Y.S. residents call 914-425-1535) 

' add $5 to CANADA or MEXICO" ~ 
' add proper postage elsewhere 


* add $3 for shipping in UPS areas 

* add $4 for C.O.D. or non-UPS areas 


All prices and specifications subject to change / Delivery subject to availability.